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Flashcards in Chapter 53 pharm 343 Deck (29):
1

Beriberi

A disease of the peripheral nerves caused by a dietary deficiency of thiamine (B1). symptoms include fatigue, diarrhea, weight loss, edema, heart failure, and disturbed nerve function.

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pellagra

a disease resulting from a deficiency of niacin or a metabolic defect that interferes with the conversion of tryptophan to niacin (b3)

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coenzyme

a nonprotein substance that combines with a protein molecule to form an active enzyme.

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rhodopsin

the purple pigment in the rods of the retina, formed by a protein, opsin, and a derivative of retinol (A).

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enzymes

specialized proteins that catalyze biochemical reactions.

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rickets

a condition caused by a deficiency of D.

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fat-soluble vitamins

vitamins that can be dissolved in fat. stored in the liver and fatty tissues. present in plant and animal foods. slow breakdown. excreted in feces, can reach toxic levels.

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Scurvy

a condition resulting from a deficiency of ascorbic acid C.

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minerals

inorganic substances that are ingested and attach to enzymes or other organic molecules. intracellular and extracellular body fluid electrolytes. neccessary for muscle contraction and nerve transmission. metallic and nonmetallic elements.

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Tocopherols

biologically active chemicals that make up vitamin E compounds.

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Vitamin A

retinol derived from animal fats, dairy products, eggs, meat, liver, and fish liver oils. also derived from carotenes which found in plants. exogenous substance for humans. essential for night vision and normal vision. also part of growth of bones and teeth. infants, pregnant, and nursing mothers. deficiency is nightblindness, softening of cornea, retarded infant growth, weakness, and mucous membranes infection. used to treat skin conditions. adverse effects shown in bones, mucous membranes, liver, and skin. toxicity in children-vertigo, delirium, coma, vomiting, diarrhea, increase in cranial pressure, bulging eyes, and visual disturbances. stop drug is only cure. is less absorbed when used with laxatives and cholestyramine.

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vitamin D

used for calcium and phosphorus in body. D2(ergocalciferol) is plant derived and D3(cholecalciferol) is an endogenous synthesis. regulate absorption of calcium and phosphorus. also for calcification of bone. D and parathyroid regulate calcium. D2 and 3 are inactive and require transformation into active for biologic activity, and transformed in liver by parathyroid hormone. infants, preggo, nursing moms. infantile rickets, tetany, and osteomalacia. preventing osteoporosis. hypercalcemia, renal dysfunction, and hyperphosphatemia. GI tract or CNS effects are noticed. toxicity in children, stop taking it.toxic effects are weakness, fatigue, hypertension, headache, anorexia, dry mouth, and vomiting. laxatives and cholestyramine.

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Vitamin E

alpha, beta, gamma, and delta make up E. antioxidant usage. premature infants. deficiency may result in irritability, edema, thrombosis, and hemolytic anemia. hinder the deterioration of A and C. beneficial effects for cancer, heart disease, premenstrual syndrome, and sex dysfunction. effects usually in GI tract and CNS.

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vitamin K

phytonadione k1, menaquinone k2 and menadione k3, synthesized in intestinal flora, endogenous supply. synthesis of blood coagulation factors, takes place in liver. it is rare to be a deficiency bcuz intestines able to synthesize sufficient amounts. deficiency states in newborns bcuz of malabsorption to inadequate amounts of bile. also def cuz of warfarin, and K can reverse warfarin. nontoxic and few side effects. injection site adverse effects. hemolysis in newborns with low levels of glucose 6.

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Vitamin B1

thiamine results in beriberi and wernicke's encephalopathy (cerbral beriberi). symptoms include brain lesions, abnormal fluid in body tisssues, and cardiac anatomic changes. Thiamine + ATP =thiamine pyrophosphate coenzyme for kreb cycle. plays key role in peripheral nervous system, heart system, and GI tract. treating a variety of metabolic disorders. prevent or treat malabsorption induced by alcohol, cirrhosis, and GI disease. incompatible with alkaline-and-sulfite containing solutions.

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vitamins

organic compounds essential in small quantities for normal physiologic and metabolic functioning of the body.

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Vitamin B12

riboflavin results in cutaneous, oral, and corneal changes that include chapped lips. essential for tissue respiration. also plays a role in carb catabolism. B6 requires riboflavin for activation. convert tryptophan into niacin. treatment of deficiency states. treatment of anemia, acne, migraines, and congenital methemoglobinemia. deficiency involve a sensation of tingling in the extremities. safe and effective vitamin. discolor urine to a yellow-orange.

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water-soluble vitamins

vitamins that can be dissolved in water. excreted in kidneys. they act primarily as coenzymes or oxidation-reduction agents in metobolic pathways.

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vitamin B3

niacin- def pellagra, symptoms- psychotic probs, crusting, redness, inflammation of oral, vaginal, and urethral mucosa, inflammed tongue, and diarrhea. metabolic producet, nicotinamide which is required for metabolic reactions. NAD and NADP for the carb pathway known as gycogenolysis. role as a antilipemis drug. treatment of pellagra result of malabsorbtion and also for management of hyperlipidemia. beneficial effect in peripheral vascular disease. contraindications- liver disease, hypotension, hemorrhage, peptic ulcers disease. Side effects are flushing, pruritus and GI distress.

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Vitamin B6

pyridoxine is composed of three compounds pyridoxine, pyridoxal, and pyridoxamine. may result in convulsions in infants. def effects skin, mucous membranes, and peripheral nerves. may occur cuz alcohol, cirrhosis, hyperthyroid, malabsorption, heart failure. help with tryptophan to niacin and the neurotransmitter serotonin. important in the synthesis of heme and the maintenance of the hematopoietic system. seizures, morning sickness, metabolic disorders may respond to pyridoxine therapy. neurotoxicity will stop after discontinuation. avoid if taking levodopa alone.

14

vitamins B12

cyanocobalamin contains cobalt. required for metabolic pathways, including fat, carb, and protein. growth, cell replication, hematopoiesis, and myelin synthesis. def results in GI lesions, nruological changes from cns lesions, and anemia. malabsorptions is major cause of def. it is included in multivitamins. foods of animal origin. most common manifestation is pernicious anemia. deep IM injection. megaloblastic bone marrow to a normoblastic bone marrow. if not treated could lead to anemia and irreversible neuro probs. sensitivity to cobalt and hereditary optic nerve atrophy. nontoxic, itching, diarrhea, and fever. current use with anticonvulsants, aminoglycoside antibiotics, and long-acting potassium preps decrease absorption of B12.

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Vitamin C

ascorbic acid def is scurvy among sailors. acts in oxidation-reduction reactions. enhances the absorption of iron and required for synthesis of lipids, proteins, and steroids. used as an urinary acidifier. nontoxic unless overdosage. nausea, vomiting, cramps, and acidify urine. if stopped, can get scurvy like symptoms. acid-labile drugs need to be avoided.

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calcium

2% of total body weight. bones and teeth. requires vitamin D. catalyst in coagulation pathways in the blood. acts as a cofactor in clotting reactions involving intrinsic and extrinsic pathways of thromboplastin. used for nevous, muscular, and skeletal systems. storage of neurotransmitter and hormones in white blood cells. high in chilcren, preggo, and nursing mom. hypercalcemia may occur which cause heart dys, delirium, and coma.

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magnesium

cations in intracellular fluid. def is usually caused by malabsorption especially in high calcium intake, alcohol, long-term intravenous feeding, diuretic used, and metabolic disorders. it is used as an anitconvulsant in magnesium def. hypermagnesemia tendon reflex loss, difficult BM, and CNS depression. cure for hypermag is intravenous calcium and diuretic. mag with NMBD and CNS depressants produce additive effects.

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phosphorus

widely distributed in foods. def is due to malabsorption. it is required for synthesis of nucleic acid and adenosine phosphate compounds, skeletal system and teeth. bones 85% of phosphorus. hyperphos and hypocaleffects include diarrhea, nausea, and vomiting.

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zinc

plays a role in enzymatic metabolic reactions involving proteins and carbs. wound healing.

27

magnesium

cations in intracellular fluid. def is usually caused by malabsorption especially in high calcium intake, alcohol, long-term intravenous feeding, diuretic used, and metabolic disorders. it is used as an anitconvulsant in magnesium def. hypermagnesemia tendon reflex loss, difficult BM, and CNS depression. cure for hypermag is intravenous calcium and diuretic. mag with NMBD and CNS depressants produce additive effects.

28

phosphorus

widely distributed in foods. def is due to malabsorption. it is required for synthesis of nucleic acid and adenosine phosphate compounds, skeletal system and teeth. bones 85% of phosphorus. hyperphos and hypocaleffects include diarrhea, nausea, and vomiting.

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zinc

plays a role in enzymatic metabolic reactions involving proteins and carbs. wound healing.