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Flashcards in chapter 54 pharm 343 Deck (20):
1

*epoetin alfa (epogen)

form of natural hormone erythropoietin which is normally secreted by the kidneys in response to a decrease in RBCs. It stimulates RBC progenitor cells in bone marrow. treat anemia associated with renal disease. it is to greatly speed up maturation. it is not effective without iron stores and bone marrow function. risk for thrombosis.

2

*ferrous sulfate

most commonly used from oral iron. 300mg two or three times a day.

3

folic acid B9 folate

beans, peas, oranges, and green veggies. absorbed in upper deodunum, malabsorption syndromes are most common cause of def. converted to tetrahydrofolic acid which is used to erythropoiesis and for DNA and RNA. treat folic acid def. prevention of neurel tube defects. at least one month before preggo and continue thru early preg to reduce the risks for neurel tube defects. only treat if underlying type of anemia is discovered.

4

erythrocytes

another name for RBC

5

erythropoiesis

process of rbc production. driven by the hormone erythropoietin, which is produced by the kidneys.

5

hemotopoiesis

normal formation and development of all blood cell types in bone marrow. takes place in he myeloid tissue or bone marrow. in certain long and flat bones.

6

globin

protein part of the hemoglobin molecule. the four different structural globin chains most often found in adults are the alpha1, alpha2, beta1 and beta2 chains.

6

hemoglobin

a complex protein-iron compound in the blood that carries oxygen to the cells from the lungs and carbon dioxide away from the cells to the lungs. 1/3 of an RBC is composed of hemoglobin.

7

hemolytic anemias

anemias resulting from excessive destruction of RBCs.

8

heme

part of the hemoglobin molecule; a nonprotein, iron-containing pigment.

8

hypochromic

pertaining to less than normal color. the term usually describes an RBC with decreased hemoglobin content and helps further characterize anemias associated with reduced synthesis of hemoglobin.

9

microcytic

pertaining to or characterized by smaller than normal cells.

10

pernicious anemia

a type of megaloblastic anemia usually seen in older adults and caused by impaired intestinal absorption of vitamin B12 due to lack of availability of intrinsic factor.

11

reticulocytes

an immature erythrocyte characterized by a meshlike pattern of threads and particles at the former site of the nucleus. 24-36 hour maturation process to become mature. lifespan is 120 days.

12

spherocytes

small, globular, completely hemoglobinated erythrocytes without the usual central concavity or pallor.

13

erythropoietin

used to treat anemia in certain specific circumstances.

14

anemia

can be caused by maturation defects, or they can be secondary to excessive RBC destruction. cytoplasmic maturation defects occur in cell cytoplasm and nuclear maturation defects occur in the cell nucleus. can be either intrinsic or extrinsic for RBC destruction. DNA or protein synthesis defects. both DNA and protein synthesis require vitamin B12 and folic acid B9 to be present in normal amounts for their proper production. anemias secondary to nuclear maturation defects may develop if vitamins are not here.

15

iron def anemia

are blood loss, surgery, childbirth, GI bleeding, period loss, and hemorrhoids.

16

RBC abnormalities

could be genetic defects like sickle cell anemia, G6PD def, and paraxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria.

17

Iron

is a mineral that is essential for the proper function of all biologic systems in the body. stored in liver, spleen, and bone marrow. women need the most iron and children. women have periods. eggs, corn, beans, and many cereal prevent iron absorption. oxygen carrier and critical for tissue respiration. hemochromatosis (iron overload). common child death. iron is strong with ascorbic acid and weak with antacids and calcium.