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Flashcards in chapter 37 pharm 343 Deck (28):
1

*albuterol (proventil)

SABA bronchodilator. loses its action in higher dosages.

2

*montelukast (singulair)

belongs to same subcategory of LTRAs. fewer adverse effects and drug interaction. preggo B.

3

*salmeterol (serevent)

is a LABA bronchodilator and never to be used for acute treatment. treatment of asthma and COPD. used with coticosteroids.

3

allergic asthma

bronchial asthma caused by hypersensitivity to an allergen.

4

allergen

any substance that evokes an allergic response.

4

alveoli

microscopic sacs in the lungs where oxygen is exchanged for carbon dioxide.

5

antibodies

immunoglobulins produced by lymphocytes in response to bacteria, viruses, or other antigenic substances.

6

antigen

a substance that causes the formation of an antibody and reacts specifically with that antibody.

7

asthma attack

the onset of wheezing together with difficulty breathing.

8

bronchial asthma

the general term for recurrent and reversible shortness of breath resulting from narrowing of the bronchi and bronchioles; it is often referred to simply as asthma.

9

bronchodilators

medications that improve airflow by relaxing bronchial smooth muscle cells.

10

chronic bronchitis

chronic inflammation and low-grade infection of the bronchi.

11

emphysema

a condition of the lungs characterized by enlargment of the air spaces distal to the bronhcioles.

12

immunoglobulins

proteins belonging to any of five structurally and antigenically distinct classes of antibodies pressent in the serum and secretions. role in immune responses.

13

LRT

the division of the resp system composed of organs located almost entirely within the chest. treatment is to cause the airways to dilate.

14

URT

the division of the resp system composed of organs located outside of chest cavity.

15

resp diseases

they all involve the obstruction of airflow thru the airways. COPD is the name applied collectively to emphysema and chronic bronchitis becuz the obstruction is relatively constant. asthma that is persistant and prevent most of the time despite treatment is also considered COPD.

16

status asthmaticus

a prolonged asthma attack.

16

beta-adrenergic agonists

acute phase of an asthmatic attack to quickly reduce airway constriction and restore airflow to normal. LABA is not for emergency use and SABA is for emergency use. dilate the airways by stimulating beta 2 located thruout the lungs. nonselective adregernic stimulate beta 1 and 2 receptors. nonselective beta adregenic stimulate both beta 1 and 2. selective stimulate beta 2. when smooth muscle contracts, the airways are narowed and the amount of oxygen and carbon dioxide exchanged is reduced. high normals cAMP causes smooth muscles to relax. decrease diastolic pressure. have a short half-life.

17

anticholinergics

treatment for COPD is ipratropium and tiotropium. directly causes airway dilation and reduce secretions in COPD. prevention of the bronchospasms and not for the management of acute symptoms. ipratropium preggo B and trotropium is preggo C. toxicity with other anticholinergic drugs.

18

Xanthine derivatives

bronchodilation by increasing the levels of the energy-producing substance cAMP. contribute to smooth muscle relaxation and also inhibit IgE induced release of the chemical mediators that drive an allergic reaction. dilate the airways with asthma, chronic bronchitis, or emphysema. adjunct drug in COPD. it is also used as a cardiac stimulant in infants with bradycardia and for resp drive in infants. their use with sympathomimetics or even caffeine can produce additive cardiac and CNS stimulation.

19

asthma

symptoms include wheezing and difficulty breathing. intrinsic-occuring with no allergies. extrinsic- exposed to allergen. there is also exercise and drug induced. the antibody is IGE. inflammatory mediators and triggers swelling and bronchoconstriction. ppl have bronchospasm beginning exercise and when it is stopped. drug can be from NSAIDS, beta blockers, sulfites, and foods.

19

Leukotriene receptor antagonists

were the first class of asthma meds. keukotriene cause inflammation, bronchoconstriction, and mucus production. in turn causes coughing, wheezing, and SOB. primary limited to the lungs. prevent leukotrienes from attaching to receptors located on circulating immune cells as well as local immune cells within the lungs. reducing inflammation, prevent muscle contraction and decrease mucus. long-term treatment and prevention of asthma in adults and children 12 years and older.

20

chronic bronchitis

is a continuous inflammation and low-grade infection of the bronchi. responsible for most airway obstruction. involves excessive secretion of mucus and certain pathologic changes in the bronchial sturcture. impariment of the enzymes damage the airway mucosal tissues.

20

Corticosteroids

used in treatment of pulmonary diseases for their antiinflammatory effects. inhalation, orally, or IV in severe cases. reducing inflammation and enhancing the activity of beta agonists. work by stabilizing the membranes of cells that normally release bronchoconstricting substances. shown to restore or increase the responsiveness of bronchial smooth muscle to beta-adrenergic receptor stimulation. primary treatment of bronchospastic disorders to control the inflammatory responses that are believed to be the cause of these disorders, they are indicated for persistant asthma. only to treat acute exacerbations or severe asthma. rinse mouth out after inhalation. adrenal suppression may occur and death may happen.

21

emphysema

condition in which the air spaces enlarge as a result of the destruction of the alveolar walls. it appears to be affected by the proteolytic enzymes. the surface area available for oxygen and carbon dioxide exchange is reduced.

21

phosphodiesterase inhibitor

to prevent coughing and excess mucus from worsening and to decrease the frequency of life-threatening COPD exacerbations. not intended to treat acute bronchospasm.

22

monoclonal antibody antiasthmatic

monoclonal antibody that selectively binds to the IgE which limits the release of mediators of the allergic response. injection and producing anaphylaxis.