Chapter 4,5,6 Vocab Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 4,5,6 Vocab Deck (294)
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Microelectrodes



Extremely fine recording electrodes, which are used for intracellular recording

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Membrane Potential



The difference in electrical charge between the inside and the outside of a cell

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Resting Potential

The steady membrane potential of a neuron at rest, usually about -70 mV

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Ions

Positively or negatively charges particles

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Random Motion

The first of the two homogenizing factors

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Contrast X-Ray Techniques

inject into one compartment of the body a substance that absorbs x-rays either less than or more than the surrounding tissue. The substance then heightens the contrast between the compartment and the surrounding tissue during the X-ray photography.

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Cerebral Angiography

X-ray technique that uses the infusion of a radio-opaque dye into a cerebral artery to visualize the cerebral circulatory system during X-ray photography.

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Computed Tomography

A computer-assisted X-ray procedure that can be used to visualize the brain and the other internal structures of the living body.

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Magnetic Resonance Imaging

Procedure in which high-resolution images are constructed from the measurement of waves that hydrogen atoms emit when they are activated by radio-frequency waves in a magnetic field. Provides clearer images than the CT.

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Spatial Resolution

Ability to detect differences in spatial location

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Concentration Gradients

A concentration gradient occurs where the concentration of something changes over a certain distance

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Electrostatic Pressure

Positively charged ions (cat ions) and negatively charged ions (anions) attract each other but repel their own kind

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Ion Channels

Ions pass through the neural membrane at specialized pores known as the Ion channels, each type of which is specialized for the passage of particular ions

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Hodgkin and Huxley

Neurophysiologists whom provided the first evidence that an energy-consuming process is involved in the maintenance of the resting potential

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Sodium-Potassium Pump

Active transport mechanisms that pump Na+ ions out of neurons and K+ ions in

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Transporters

Mechanisms in the membrane of a cell that actively transport ions or molecules across the membrane

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Depolarize

To decrease the resting membrane potential

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Hyperpolarize

To increase the resting membrane potential

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Excitatory Postsynaptic Potentials

Graded postsynaptic depolarizations, which increase the likelihood that an action potential will be generated

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Inhibitory Postsynaptic Potentials

Graded postsynaptic hyperpolarizations, which decrease the likelihood that an action potential will be generated

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Graded Responses

Responses whose magnitude is indicative of the magnitude of the stimuli that will induce them

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Axon Hillock

The conical structure at the junction between the axon and cell body

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Positron Emission Tomography

Brain-imaging technique that has been widely used in biopsychological research because it provides images of brain activity rather than brain structure.

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2-deoxyglucose

Injected into the patient?s carotid artery. Similar to glucose, so it is quickly taken up by active cells. However, it cannot be metabolized and therefore accumulates. Allowing to see what brain structures are active at certain times.

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Functional MRI

Produce images of the increase in oxygen flow in the blood to active areas of the brain which allows inferring what brain structure is at work.

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BOLD Signal

This is the signal that the functional MRI produces. (blood-oxygen-level- dependent signal)

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Magnetoencephalography

Measures changes in magnetic fields on the surface of the scalp that are produced by changes in underlying patterns of neural activity.

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Temporal Resolution

An advantage of Magnetoencephalography, the ability to detect differences in time

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Electroencephalography

A technique for recording the gross electrical activity of the brain, commonly recorded through scalp electrodes

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Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation

Technique for disrupting the activity in an area of the cortex by creating a magnetic field under a coil positioned next to the skull. Stimulation turns off part of the brain while the effects of the disruption on cognition and behavior are assessed.