Explain between-subject and within-subject experiments.
What are the key variables that comprise these types of “experiments”. (quasi, case study, non and experiment)
IV and DV
How do quasiexperiments ad case studies differ from those considered to be “nonexperiments”?
Between Subject- Different qgroup different condition (one group listens to loud music another listens to low music)
Within subject- Same group different condition.
Independent Variable- variable being manipulated
Dependent variable- variable being measured
Quasi study- manipulation no random
Case study- study one person ( HM) you get a lot more data but can't generalize
non -exxperiment- no random no manipulation
experiment- random and manipulation can imply causation
Identify 5 individuals who made important historical contributions to the development of the field of Biopsychology. What were their contributions and how/why were they important to the field?
a. Hippocrates – 1st to consider the brain to be the center of thought and emotions
b. Rene Descartes –
- Father of Modern Philosophy (Mind and Soul),
- Dualism- Human vs Animals
- vouluntary vs involuntary behaviors animals are reflexive with only involuntary movement
- we have both involuntary and voluntary movement because we have a mind and soul that interacts at the penal gland
c. Luigi Galvania – electrical stimulation of the nerve in a frog’s leg produced contraction of the leg muscle
d. Johannes Muller – Doctrine of Specific Nerve Energies – because all nerve fibers carry the same type of message, sensory information must be specified by the particular nerve fibers that are active (somatosensory)
e. Pierre Flourens – Experimental ablationdamage a specific area of the barin to study the impariments it causes.
f. Paul Broca – extended the concept of “experimental ablation” to humans, Broca’s area (region of the left hemisphere involved in speaking ability)
g. Gustav Fritsch & Eduard Hitzig – used electrical stimulation of the brain to understand the function (activating areas in humans and rats)
h. Herman von Helmholtz – responsible for developing the law of conservation of energy, the ophthalmoscope, a theory of color vision and blindness, and the first measurements of the speed of nerve conduction (simple studies – closer to head, react quicker than feet)
2. Name and describe the different primary divisions of Biopsychology. Be able to provide an example corresponding with each division. 6 of them
a. Physiological Psychology - manipulation of the brain to see how it affects behavior. (put rod in rat brian)
b. Psychopharmacology –develope durg to help with impariments. (ex: people with Alzeheimer’s Disease)
c. Neuropsychology – psychological effects of brain damage in human patients. (HM)
d. Psychophysiology – the relationship between physiological activity and psychological processes in humans by noninvasive physiological recording (EEG, MRI'S)
e. Cognitive Neuroscience – Cognition, memory thoughts, attention (FFRI memory test)
f. Comparative Psychology – study of evolution, genetics and adaptiveness of behavior, largely through the use of the comparative method. (darwin and the Big Beek Birds )
4. Describe the five viewpoints/research perspectives of Biopsychology discussed in class.
a. Descriptive – Descriptive Statistics (mean, median, mode)
- Structural – Strictly describing the characteristics of a behavior (directly observed)
- Functional – focus on the function of specific behaviors( whats causing said behavior)
b. Mechanisms – the underlying aspects
- Biochemical – hormonal aspects, neurotransmitters, ionic (sodium, calcium, etc.)
- Physiological – the electrical aspect, EEG (brain wave)
- Anatomical – which part of the brain is responsible for the behavior
c. Ontogeny – early development (study things from birth to death)
d. Applications – more applied research vs. basic research
- Continuity – continuation of behaviors across species
- Species – Specific Differences – organisms in the evolutionary span that become unique
5. What are the 4 primary brain/behavior approaches that scientists may sometimes take? Provide an example of each.
a.Samatic intervention- Manipulating the body may affect behavior
- Administer a hormone = increase in sex drive
b. Somatic affects- Experience affects the body
- Put a man near an atractive woman = change in hormonre
c. Somatic variables- how variables relate
- Brain Size> Learning scores
- Hormone Levels >Strength of mating behavior
d. Biological psychology seeks to understand all these relationships. all influence each other (correlations)
- Somatic Variables = Somatic Intervention = Behavioral Variables = Behavioral Interventions = Somatic Variables
Describe the model for how biopsychologists often think about the biology of behavior. Include in your description the 7 basic components.
Genes- They were given to you and you will always develope that way bc it was passed to you ex: blue eyes
Experience- can change your genes but experience can add additional behaviors to the ones you inherited.
Current organism- who you are based on the development of your nervous system
Current Behavior- has a result of those experienses and DNA you are the person you are today
If you surview then your genes will be passed on
Describe some of the similarities and differences between the brains of different species along the evolutionary scale.
a. Similarities: cerebrum and brain stem; constructed of neurons and neural structures in the brains of one species can usually be found in the brains of related species
b. Differences: size, % of body weight; in humans, the brain has increased in size during evolution with most of increase being in the cerebrum; also, there during evolution there was an increased number in the convolutions on the brain which greatly increased the volume of the cerebral cortex
Humans = Degree of development in brain regions for intelligence (learrning, memory and planning). Slow maturation allows more time for growth (slower the development the better the developement of the nurvous system.
Animals= Brain functions focuses on sensory information processing, and they can move away from mom quicker because they develope faster.
Explain the concept of Mendelian genetics and its basic components
Dichotomous traits – occur in one form or another, never in combination
Dominant trait – a trait appearing in all of the first-generation offspring
Recessive trait – a trait appearing in about ¼ of the second-generation offspring
Phenotype – observable traits
Genotype – traits that may be passed on to offspring via genetic material
Mendelian Genetics = passing on of physical traits from generation to generation
Describe the concepts of chromosomal reproduction and recombination
a. Genetic recombination – each of the gametes that formed the zygote that developed into you contained chromosomes that were unique, spliced-together recombination of chromosomes from your mother and father
b. Reproduction-one chromosome begins cell division by copying the nucleus
Describe chromosomal structure and replication
a. Double-stranded molecule of DNA. Each strand is a sequence of nucleotide bases attached to a chain of phosphate and deoxyribose; there are four nucleotide bases: adenine, thymine, guanine, and cytosine
b. Replication is when the two strands start to unwind, exposed bases attract their complimentary base, which then creates two separate strands
Describe the process of gene expression
a. Protein synthesis – assembly of protein molecules which occurs in the cell’s cytoplasm.
b. Gene expression – reading of DNA which may result in protein synthesis.
c. Structural Genes – contain information necessary for protein synthesis (long chains of amino acids).
d. Enhancers (promoters) – nonstructural genes that initiate protein synthesis and the rate of synthesis
Describe the structure of the nervous system and the function of its various divisions and subdivisions. (You may draw a diagram if it helps demonstrate your answer.)
see regular flash card
• Central Nervous System – contains brain and spinal cord also deals with involutary movements
• Peripheral Nervous System - broken down into Autonomic and Somatic NS deals with involuntary movement.
- Somatic NS- interacts with external enviornment has Afferent nerves (carries signals from external organs to CNS; approach) and Efferent Nerves (carries signals from CNS to internal organs; exits);
- Autonomic NS - contains Afferent and Efferent Nerves as well; plays a role in regulation of the body’s internal environment brings info from organs to CNS
- Efferent Nerves are broken into Sympathetic and Parasympathetic NS.
• Sympathetic NS - projects from CNS to lumbar(small of back) and thoracic(chest) regions of spinal cord;
- stimulate, organize and mobilize energy resources in the NS
• Parasympathetic NS- projects from brain and sacral region of spinal cord to organs
Explain the structure of the ventricular system and the blood-brain barrier. What do these structures do?
• Ventricular System – contains the lateral ventricles, third and fourth ventricle and the central ventricle
- These ventricles are filled with cerebrospinal fluid
- they protrudes through into the ventricles from the pia mater.
- This fluid cushions and supports the brain and spinal cord.
- The Cerebrospinal fluid flows from the lateral ventricle then into the third and fourth ventricle by the cerebral aqueduct that connects the two.
- Excess Cerebrospinal fluid is absorbed from the subarachnoid space into large blood vessel
- which run through Dura mater into large jugular vein of neck.
• Blood-Brain Barrier – Keeps toxic chemicals out of the brain
- Unlike the blood vessels of the body, cerebral blood vessels are tightly packed creating a barrier that blocks certain proteins and other large molecules from getting in.
- How well a drug can go through the blood brain barrier tells how effective it is.
- Some large molecules can get through the barrier like glucose since it is the food of the brain and certain areas of the brain allows certain large molecules to pass through.
Draw a diagram showing the internal structures of a typical multipolar neuron in the CNS. Label each of these structures and explain their function.
• Cell Body – also called soma, it is the metabolic center of neuron
• Endoplasmic Reticulum – system of folded membranes in cell body; rough portions that has ribosome play a role in the synthesis of proteins and smooth portions play a play in the synthesis of fats
• Cytoplasm – clear internal fluid of cell
• Ribosome – internal cellular structure on which proteins are synthesized; located on endoplasmic reticulum.
• Golgi Complex - connected system of membranes that packages molecules in vesicles.
• Nucleus – spherical DNA-containing structure of cell body
• Mitochondria –sites of aerobic (oxygen-consuming) energy release
• Microtubules – tubules responsible for the rapid transport of material through neurons
• Synaptic vesicles - spherical membrane packages that store neurotransmitters molecules ready for release near synapses
• Neurotransmitter – molecules that are released from active neurons and influence the activity of other cells.
Name and describe the function of the different types of neurons and glial cells found in the nervous system
Multipolar Neurons: more than two process extending from its cell body.
Unipolar Neurons: 1 process extending from its cell body
Bipolar Neurons: 2 processes extending from its cell body
Interneurons: short or no axon; function is to integrate neural activity in a single brain structure
Glial cells- found throughout nervous sytem out number neuron 10:1
Astrocytes (4th class)–
- largest glial cell;
- star shaped;
- cover blood vessels that course through brain and also make contact with neuron cell bodies.
- allows some chemicals into blood in cns
- wrap around axons (myelin and myelin sheaths) on CNS; several myelin segments.
Schwann Cells 2nd class –
- very similar to Oligodendrocytes but are on PNS and can guide axonal regeneration after damage.
Microglia 3rd class
- respond to injury or disease by multiplying, engulfing cellular debris and triggering inflammatory responses.
Explain the orientation terms used in neuroscience to describe the brain. Use these terms to describe the three sectional planes that might be used to slice a brain for examination.
• Anterior (rostral) –
• Posterior (caudal)
• Horizontal Plane
• Frontal Plane
• Sagittal Plane
• Anterior (rostral) – Towards Nose (and towards upper portion of body for humans)
• Posterior (caudal) – towards back of head (and towards bottom of body for humans)
• Dorsal – Top of the head (and back of body for humans)
• Ventral – towards surface of chest (and bottom of head for humans)
• Medial –towards center of body
• Lateral – away from the center of the body
• Horizontal Plane - parallel to top of head (ventral cut)
• Frontal Plane – parallel to face (anterior cut)
• Sagittal Plane – parallel to side of the brain (lateral or medial cut)
Draw a diagram of the spinal cord. Label and describe the function of the components of the spinal cord.
Dura Mater – Outer most meninges of spinal cord; tough mother; very strong
Arachnoid – contains subarachnoid membrane that houses blood vessels and cerebrospinal fluid
Pia Mater – Innermost meninges of spinal cord; pious mother, adheres to the CNS
Gray Matter- composed of cell bodies and unmyelinated interneurons
White Matter – composed of myelinated axons
Dorsal Horns – two dorsal arms of spinal gray matter; axons of the 62 spinal nerves join here (or in ventral horns)
Ventral Horns – two ventral arms of spinal gray matter; axons of 62 spinal nerves join here (or in dorsal horns)
Dorsal Root Ganglion – structures just outside spinal cord that are composed of the cell bodies of dorsal root axons; ventral root are motor (efferent) multipolar neurons w/ cell bodies in ventral root.
What are the 5 major divisions of the brain and what structures are associated with each division?
- Cerebral cortex
- complex cognitive proceses
- voluntary movement
- complex funtions
- Thalamus &. Hypothalamus
- Tectum (Superior and Inferior Colliculi)
- Tegmentum (Reticular Formation, Cerebral Aqueduct, Periaqueductal Gray, Substantia Nigra, Red Nucleus)
- Reticular Formation
- brain stem
- ventral surface
e. Mylencephalon (Medulla)
- Reticular Formation
- cardiac things
Describe, in detail, the location of each of the lobes of the brain using proper neuroscientific terminology. Describe the various functions of each of these lobes.
a. Occipital Lobe
b. Temporal Lobe & 3 general functions
- 1. superior temporal gyrus
- 2. inferior temporal gyrus
- 3. temporal cortex
c. Frontal Lobe & Two distinct functional areas
- 1. Precentral gyrus and adjacent frontal cortex -
- 2. Frontal Cortex –
d. Parietal Lobe –
- Postcentral gyrus
8. Describe, in detail, the location of each of the lobes of the brain using proper neuroscientific terminology. Describe the various functions of each of these lobes.
a. Occipital Lobe – Posterior to temporal and Parietal
b. Temporal Lobe – dorsal to frontal and parietal
i. 3 general functions
1. superior temporal gyrus – involved with hearing and language
2. inferior temporal gyrus – identifies complex visual patterns
3. temporal cortex – certain kinds of memory
c. Frontal Lobe – anterior to parietal and temporal
i. Two distinct functional areas
1. Precentral gyrus and adjacent frontal cortex - have a motor function
2. Frontal Cortex – performs complex cognitive functions such as planning response sequences, evaluating the outcomes of potential patterns of behavior of other
d. Parietal Lobe – ventral to temporal
i. Postcentral gyrus analyzes sensations of the from the body (touch) whereas the cortex plays a role in perceiving locations of objects and our bodies and in direction our attention
What structures comprise the limbic system and what does this system do?
• Amygdala, Cingulate cortex, Cingulate gyrus, Fornix and Septum
• The Limbic System is assumed to play a role in emotion (the 4 F’s: Feeding, Fighting, fleeing and sexual behavior
What structures comprise the basal ganglia and what does this system do?
Caudate, Putamen, Striatum, Globus Pallidus and the Substantia Nigra
• Plays a role in voluntary motor responses