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Flashcards in Chapter 4 Deck (19):
1

Thrust

force in animal's direction

2

Lift

Force opposite in right angles to the thrust

3

drag

force opposite he direction of the movement

4

what does the great density of water provide animals with in terms of movement?

the ability to float; use of air bladders, oil-filled livers

5

how does the minimal effect of gravity in water affect the structure of a fish?

greatly lowers the need for strong boney support structures

6

what is the collagenous connective tissue that attaches myomeres to each other?

myosepta

7

how many vertebra can a myomere span?

3-13

8

what are the three swimming modes?

Burst: rapid acceleration and associated speeds that can last less than 20 seconds
Prolonged: constant speeds that can be maintained from 20 seconds to 200 minutes, end in fatigue
Sustained: constant swimming, does not end in exhaustion

9

how much faster is burst speed to sustained speed?

5x

10

what does red muscle fiber have?

-small in diameter
-high vasculatization
-well supplied w lipids and glycogen
-high mitrochondrial volume

11

what does white muscle have?

limited, but fast (strong) activity
wide diameter
poor vascularization
low mitrochondrial volume
anaerobic glycolysis for energy

12

what proportion of muscle is red?

0-30

13

who has higher proportion red muscle?

thunniforms, lamnid sharks

14

what are four main and basic points about locomotion?

a) the faster a fish beats its tail, the faster it goes
b) the larger the fish, the faster it goes
c) The larger the fish, the more efficient it uses energy (per given body mass)
d) the warmer it is, the faster a fish goes

15

what are three things that can be said of the 'extreme end' of the 'active searchers' such as tuna and lamnid sharks?

1) expect more red muscle, given the relationship btwn the proportion of red muscle and ability to do sustained swimming
2) expect them to be relatively large, given the strong positive relationship btwn size and swimming speed
3) we might expect them to be 'warm blooded', given the relationship btwn swimming speed and temperature

16

how have lamnid and tunas became thermo-regulators?

by moving red muscle to the middle of their body, and in the inside, away from water contact.

17

why do lamnid and tuna want to be thermo regulators?

b/c it allows them to swim fast and continuously, which allows heat to be retained in the core of the fish leading to local warm-bloodedness

18

how long does it take for 'warm blooded' fishes to return to normal lactate levels? how long for non-thermo regulatory fishes?

regulatory: 2 hours
non-: 12-24 hours

19

what is the part of the gill called that releases heat? what is this system called?

rete mirabile. countercurrent system