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Flashcards in Chapter 4 Deck (25):

A(n) ____ is a molecule that is used by immune cells for communication.

All of the above


Which of the following is NOT a property of cytokines?

Induce cell motility


______ are responsible for recruiting immune cells to a specific location within the body, organ, or tissue.



The activity of most cytokines is BEST described as:

Both A and B: Autocrine and Paracrine


What determines if a particular cell will be acted up on by a cytokine?

Presence or absence of a cytokine receptor


IL-2 acts on several cell types thus regulating multiple immune processes. IL-2 is said to be:



You are a new member of a graduate research lab. Your research is to study the effects of a novel cytokine TNF-mu (TNF-μ). During the course of your research, you discover that TNF-μ induces monocyte maturation, inhibits eosinophil development, and begins a signaling cascade that promotes histamine release. What term best describes the action of TNF-μ on eosinophils?



B-cell proliferation is triggered by IL-2, IL-4, and IL-5. Each of these cytokines is secreted by activated TH cells thus their action is:



Which of the following is an example of antagonism?

IFN-ɣ prevents class switching in plasma cells by binding IL-4.


Chemokines often show redundancy in their signaling. Why might redundancy be beneficially in multicellular organisms to starting certain immune responses?

A, B, and C


Cytokines are grouped into functional families. How many families of cytokines are identified to date?



Which cytokine family is responsible for promoting inflammation?

Interleukin 1 family


IRAK is a cytokine receptor activated kinase that binds MyD88 and TRAF6. The IRAK-TRAF6 complex activates TAK1 protein that will activate either the MAP kinase cascade or the NF-κB pathway. Which family of cytokine receptors can activate IRAK?

Interleukin 1 family


IL-2, GM-CSF, erythropoietin, prolactin, and IL-12 are representatives of which cytokine family?

Hematopoietin family


Which family of cytokines was the first to be discovered?

Interferons family


Members of type I and type III interferon are responsible for controlling:

Both A and C


Which family of cytokine receptors uses the Janus activated kinase (JAK) family of tyrosine kinases?

Interferons family


Which family of cytokines regulates target-cell development, proliferation, or death?

Tumor Necrosis Factor family


This family of cytokines is the most recently discovered and contains cytokines that contribute to both innate and adaptive immunity.

Interleukin 17 family


_______ are proteins that inhibit the activity of various cytokines.

Cytokine antagonists


Epstein-Barr virus produces an IL-10 homologue. What is the purpose of the IL-10 homologue?

The IL-10 homologue binds to the cell receptor to prevent cytokines from triggering an inflammatory response.


Variola virus, the causative agent of small pox, produces soluble TNF receptors. What advantage does the production of a TNF receptor have for avoiding immune response?

TNF represents a family of soluble cytokines. By producing soluble receptors that bind cytokines, then the cytokine effector response is eliminated and only a limited immune response will occur.


Septic shock is caused by:

lipid A (an endotoxin).


A cytokine storm, or hypercytokinemia, is a condition where cytokines are released that trigger the release of other cytokines to develop a positive feedback loop. It is thought that the 1917–1918 Influenza pandemic induced a cytokine storm in its victims. Which of the following mechanisms would be BEST to stop the positive feedback loop created by a cytokine storm?

The use of soluble antagonists to bind membrane-bound cytokine receptors


Several drugs have been developed over the past decade that target and bind to specific cytokines (e.g., TNF-α). What detrimental health effects result from blocking cytokines?

Both A and B are potential concerns.