Chapter 4 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 4 Deck (25):
1

Amino acids and glucose enter cells by

active transport.

2

The taste sensation umami can best be described as

a savory or meaty taste derived from the amino acid glutamate.

3

Bile is formed in the ___________ and stored in the ___________.

liver; gallbladder

4

The salivary glands produce about ___ cup(s) of saliva each day. Saliva is a watery fluid that contains ________, ___________, and ___________.

4; mucus; digestive enzymes; antibacterial substances

5

The life span of absorptive cells in the villi is approximately

2 to 5 days.

6

The leading cause of peptic ulcer disease is

Helicobacter pylori infection.

7

Most of the digestive processes occur in the

small intestine.

8

Tissues are defined as

a collection of cells that perform a specific function.

9

Human digestion of food begins in the _______, where the enzyme _____ breaks down a small amount of starch.

mouth; amylase

10

The 4 primary types of tissue are

epithelial, connective, muscle, and nervous.

11

An example of a probiotic is

bacteria in yogurt.

12

The hepatic portal system delivers nutrients from the digestive tract to the

liver.

13

The stomach is protected from digesting itself by producing

a thick layer of mucus to coat the lining of the stomach.

14

Bicarbonate ions (HCO3-) from the pancreas

neutralize the acid contents in the duodenum.

15

The small intestine is divided into three segments. List them in descending order.

Duodenum, jejunum, ileum

16

The smallest functional unit of the human body is the

cell.

17

A circular muscle that can open and close and acts to regulate the flow of materials in one direction is referred to as

a sphincter.

18

The stomach can absorb

alcohol

19

Gastrin, secretin, CCK, and gastric inhibitory peptide are examples of

hormones.

20

The bacteria that usually inhabit the large intestine are prevented from backing up into the ileum by the action of the

ileocecal sphincter.

21

The sphincter that allows chyme to pass into the small intestine is known as the

pyloric sphincter.

22

Most dietary fats will

enter the lymphatic system.

23

The ______ layer of the GI tract wall contains glands, blood vessels, and nerves, whereas the ________ layer is the outermost layer that protects the GI tract.

submucosa; serosa

24

The gastric secretion, pepsin, is necessary for

protein digestion.

25

Secretions from the pancreas include

sodium bicarbonate and digestive enzymes.