Chapter 9 Flashcards Preview

Intro To Human Nutrition > Chapter 9 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chapter 9 Deck (30):
1

If oxygen is present, metabolism is considered to be

aerobic.

2

Ketones are produced from:

acetyl-CoA.

3

In the body, excess amino acids are

burned as fuel or stored as fat.

4

Glycolysis is the process by which

glucose breaks apart to form pyruvate.

5

During the end reaction of the electron transport chain, oxygen becomes

reduced to water (H2O).

6

Electron transport is the process by which

NADH + H+ and FADH2 are converted to NAD+ and FAD, donating electrons and hydrogen ions to oxygen.

7

Amino acids (or parts of their carbon skeletons) that can be converted to pyruvate or enter the citric acid cycle directly are called

glucogenic amino acids.

8

The citric acid cycle is also known as the

Krebs cycle.

9

When muscle tissue is exercising under anaerobic conditions, the production of ______ is important because it ensures a continuous supply of NAD+.

lactate

10

After a person has fasted for about a week, the brain adapts to using _______ for some of its fuel needs.

ketones

11

Oxidation-reduction reactions in the body are controlled by

enzymes.

12

When the carbon skeleton of an amino acid is oxidized for energy, the amino group is removed and sent to the liver to produce

urea.

13

Where does alcohol metabolism predominantly occur in the body?

liver

14

All the chemical and physical processes involved in maintaining life are referred to as

metabolism.

15

The common pathway for the oxidation of glucose and fatty acids is

the citric acid cycle.

16

How many molecules of lactate are produced from one molecule of glucose?

2

17

When a compound is oxidized it ______ one or more electrons.

loses

18

Fasting or starvation accelerates

gluconeogenesis.
ketone production.
body protein breakdown.
body fat breakdown.
All of these choices are correct.

19

In which compartment of the cell do Krebs cycle and fatty acid oxidation take place?

mitochondria.

20

Red blood cells undergo anaerobic metabolism, which means that they produce

lactate.

21

Beta-oxidation is the process by which

fatty acids break apart to form acetyl-CoA.

22

Ketosis increases with

fasting.
a low-carbohydrate diet.
uncontrolled type 1 diabetes mellitus.
All of these choices are correct.

23

Photosynthesis occurs in plants and uses energy from the sun to

produce organic compounds from carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen.

24

The process of simply losing an amine group from amino acids is called:

deamination

25

The major end products of the electron transport chain are

water, carbon dioxide and ATP.

26

Gluconeogenesis is the process whereby the body

produces glucose from amino acid and glycerol molecules.

27

Flavin adenine dinucleotide is a coenzyme form of the vitamin

riboflavin.

28

All the energy available to humans has its origins in

the sun's solar energy.

29

After a period of prolonged fasting (starving), the brain changes its fuel requirements

and starts to use ketones and spares protein.

30

The energy currency the body uses is

ATP.