Chapter 4: Mechanisms of Population Change Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 4: Mechanisms of Population Change Deck (20)
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1
Q

Biological Species

A

A group of populations that can reproduce together.

2
Q

Mutation

A

Changes in the genetic material of an organism.

3
Q

Selective Advantage

A

A characteristic that improves an organisms chance of survival usually in a changing environment.

4
Q

Natural Selection

A

When the characteristics of a population change because individuals with certain inherited traits survive changing conditions and pass on their traits to their offspring.

5
Q

Selective Pressure

A

When environmental conditions select “for” certain characteristics of individuals and select “against” others.

6
Q

Variation

A

A visible or invisible difference in members of the same population.

7
Q

Theory of Evolution By Natural Selection

A

The theory of how species have changed, and continue to change, during Earths history as a result of natural selection.

8
Q

Paleontology

A

The study of ancient life through the examination of fossils.

9
Q

Inheritance of Acquired Characteristics

A

The theory that characteristics that you acquire during your lifetime will be passed on to your offspring.

10
Q

Fossil Record

A

Remains and traces of past life found in sedimentary rock, which reveals the history of life on Earth and the kinds of organisms that were alive in the past.

11
Q

Transitional Fossils

A

The remains of organisms that show links between groups of organisms.

12
Q

Biogeography

A

The study of the past and present geographical distribution of species.

13
Q

Homologous Structures

A

Body parts in different species that have the same evolutionary origin and structural elements, but may have a different function.

14
Q

Analogous Structures

A

Body parts in different species that similar function but evolved separately.

15
Q

Speciation

A

The formation of a new species.

16
Q

Geographical Barriers

A

A barrier that causes speciation by physically separating a population (mountains, rivers, islands).

17
Q

Biological Barriers

A

Factors that keep species reproductively isolated even when they exist in the same region (behaviours, bird mating calls).

18
Q

Adaptive Radiation

A

When an ancestral species has been split into a variety of species, all of which are differently adapted.

19
Q

Gradualism

A

The theory that change occurs slowly and steadily in a linear fashion, and that large changes occur through the accumulation of many small changes.

20
Q

Punctuated Equilibrium

A

The model that suggests that evolutionary history consists of long periods of stable equilibrium until divergence occurs.