Chapter 4 Part I Flashcards Preview

Organ Histo Exam II > Chapter 4 Part I > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chapter 4 Part I Deck (58):
1

endothelium of ENDOCARDIUM layer of heart is made of ______

simple squamous

2

looser CT layer of ENDOCARDIUM layer of heart is made of ______

fibroelastic CT

3

denser CT layer of ENDOCARDIUM layer of heart is made of ______

more collagen I and elastic fibers
some smooth muscle

4

subendocardial layer of ENDOCARDIUM of heart is made of _______

looser CT with blood vessels, and nerves

5

______ are modified cardiac myocytes; contain stored ______ ; and are attached using ____ & _____

purkinje fibers
glycogen
gap junctions
macula adherens

6

atria of myocardium is ____ muscle and more _____ fibers

less muscle
more elastic

7

ventricle of myocardium is ______ muscle layer

well-developed

8

TRANSVERSE portion of intercalated discs are made of ______ & ______

macula adherens
fascia adherens

9

LONGITUDINAL portion of intercalated discs are made of ______

large gap junctions

10

fxns of intercalated discs are:
1 attach cardiac myocytes in a row using _____ & _____
2 attach and stabilize myofibrils using _______
3 cell to cell communication using ______

macula adherens & gap junctions
fascia adherens
gap junctions

11

_______ will INCREASE HR and INCREASE CONTRACTION FORCE

sympathetics

12

______ will SLOW HR and DECREASE CONTRACTION FORCE

parasympathetics

13

specialized cardiac muscle cells are called

myoendocrine cells

14

____ function in:
1 fluid and electrolyte balance so target the KIDNEYS
2 DECREASE BP so target small arteries and arterioles

hormones

15

epicardium of pericardium is made of _____

visceral pericardium

16

sub-epicardial layer of fibroblastic CT (in pericardium) containing:

coronary vessels
nerves
sometimes- much adipose

17

layer of pericardium that secretes a serous lubricating fluid

mesothelium

18

layer of pericardium that includes:
mesothelium
layer of fibroelastic CT

parietal pericardium

19

pericardial sac is made of _____ & ______

parietal pericardium
fibrous pericardium (collagen I)

20

pericardial cavity holds _____ ml of fluid btwn _____ & ______

15-50 ml
visceral pericardium
parietal pericardium

21

cardiac skeleton is made of _____ CT and the 3 main components are: ___ , ____ & _____

dense irregular CT
annuli fibrosi
trigonum fibrosum
septum membranaceum

22

around base of aorta, pulmonary artery and the openings to the chambers

annuli fibrosi

23

_____ is by cusps of aortic valve

trigonum fibrosum

24

upper portion of interventicular septum that functions as the ORGIN AND INSERTION for some cardiac myocytes

septum membranaceum

25

______ CT has many collagen I and elastic fibers and is almost AVASCULAR

dense irregular CT

26

additional component of interventicular septum that are tendon-like and made of DENSE REGULAR CT

chordae tendinae

27

____ generally isolates atrial and ventricular myocardial to ensure individual chamber contractions

cardiac skeleton

28

chest pain usually brought out by exertion

angina

29

slow progressive narrowing of coronary vessels therefore, less oxygen is the cause of : _____

angina

30

abnormal heart rhythms

dysrhythmia

31

can result when damage or death occurs to purkinje fibers and other conducting tissues

dysrhythmia

32

infection in pericardial cavity and therefore inflammation of the serous pericardium

pericarditis

33

all but the smallest/thinnest BV have 3 major luminal wall layers: ____, _____ & _____

tunica intima
tunica media
tunica adventitia

34

tunica intima is continuation of _______
tunica media is continuation of _______
tunica adventitia is continuation of _______

endocardium
myocardium
epicardium

35

elastic arteries are AKA ______; examples include:

conducting arteries
aorta
common iliac
carotid
brachiocephalic
subclavian

36

attenuated endothelium
thin/incomplete internal elastic lamina
thicker CT with elastic fibers, collagen I, fibroblasts and smooth ms
*in elastic arteries*

tunica intima of elastic arteries (structure)

37

THICKEST, most dominant layer of Elastic Arteries
-primarily fenestrated sheets of elastic fibers with some collagen I and smooth muscle
- thin external elastic lamina possible
outer portion typically contains VASA VASORUM

tunica media of elastic arteries (structure)

38

loose fibroelastic CT
vas vasorum numerous
in elastic arteries

tunica adventitia of elastic arteries (structure)

39

______ is AKA distributing arteries; examples include:

muscular arteries
brachial
radial
renal
femoral

40

endothelium
some CT- few smooth muscle cells possible
internal elastic lamina

tunica intima of muscular arteries (structure)

41

primary circular smooth muscle in muscular arteries
gap junctions btwn SM cells
elastic and reticular fibers, chondroitin sulfate
external elastic lamina possible
*richly innervated with sympathetics so it can have a STRONG contraction over area*

tunica media of muscular arteries (structure)

42

TUNICA MEDIA of muscular arteries is richly innervated with sympathetics so it can have a STRONG contraction over area determines ______

lumen size

43

fibroelastic CT with sulfated GAGs in muscular arteries
fibroblasts
vasa vasorum

tunica adventitia of muscular arteries (structure)

44

small blood vessels supplying the cells in tunica adventitia

vasa vasorum

45

lumen size is approx = to ________

width of vessel wall

46

internal elastic lamina is possible in _____ of ARTERIOLES

tunica intima of arterioles

47

no external elastic lamina
ONLY SMOOTH MUSCLE
in the _____ of ARTERIOLES

tunica media of arterioles

48

_____ width increases into your 20'2
# of elastic laminae increase in _______

elastic arteries
tunica media

49

- collagen and proteoglycans increase after middle age- DECREASED flexibility
- coronary vessels greatly affected

muscular arteries

50

an increase in SYSTOLIC BP can occur around age 50 due to a DECREASE in ELASTIC fibers and INCREASE in collagen I

hypertension

51

hardening of arteries, primarily occurs in the _____ of arteries

atherosclerosis
largest

52

in atherosclerosis, the ____ becomes infiltrated with SOFT LIPIDS --> causing DECREASE _______
_____ can be affected, COLLAGEN I and sulfated GAGs can accumulate

tunica intima
DECREASE lumen diameter
tunica media

53

elastic arteries & atherosclerosis
problem: blood is moving ______ so cells in tunica INTIMA have trouble surviving --> _______ is prone to injury, irritation and infection --> degenerative changes may occur in tunica intima --> INCREASE in ______ width therefore a decrease in _______ size

fast
tunica MEDIA
tunica INTIMA
lumen

54

over-flow prevention system

metarterioles

55

_____ are short terminal arteriole branches that lack a true intima media
lead to capillaries and a ______ that lead to venules

metarterioles
thoroughfare

56

AV shunt; bypass system

arteriovenous anastomosis

57

fxn: to control lumen size and therefore the amount of blood into the capillaries

ANS nerves in AVA

58

valves are made with ______ , which has lots of Collagen I and Elastic Fibers (avascular)

dense irregular CT