Chapter 4 - Sensation and Perception Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 4 - Sensation and Perception Deck (42):
1

condition in which perceptual or cognitive activities trigger exceptional experiences

synesthesia

2

stimulation sense organs

sensation

3

selection, organization and interpretation of sensory inpu

pereception

4

study of how physical stimuli are translated into psychological experience

psychophysics

5

dividing point b/t energy levels that do and do not have a detectable effect

threshold

6

specific type of sensory input is the minimum amount of stimulation that an organism can detect

absolute threshold

7

the size of a just noticeable difference is a constant proportion of the size of the initial stimulus

Weber's Law

8

detection of stimuli involves decision processes as well as sensory processes, which are both influenced by a variety of factors besides stimulus intensity

signal-detection theory

9

registration of sensory input without conscious awarness

subliminal perception

10

gradual decline in sensitivity due to prolonged stimulation

sensory adaptation

11

transparent eye structure that focuses the light rays falling on the retina

lens

12

neural tissue lining the inside back surface of the eye; absorbs light, processes images and sends visual info to the brain

retina

13

specialized visual receptors that play a key role in daylight vision and colour vision

cones

14

tiny spot in the centre of the retina that contains only cones; visual acuity is greatest at this spot

fovea

15

specialized visual receptors that play a key role in night vision and peripheral vision

rods

16

the process in which the eyes become more sensitive to light in low illumination

dark adaptation

17

the process whereby the eyes become less sensitive to light in high illumination

light adaptation

18

point at which the optic nerve from the inside half of each eye cross over and then project to the opposite half of the brain

optic chiasm

19

neurons respond selectively to very specific features of more complex stimuli

feature detectors

20

an inability to recognize objectcs

visual agnosia

21

an inability to recognize familiar faces

prosopagnosia

22

the human eye has 3 types of receptors with differing sensitivities to diff light wavelengths

trichromatic theory

23

colour perception depends on receptors that make antagonistic responses to 3 pairs of colours

opponent process theory

24

a readiness to perceive a stimulus in a particular way

perceptual set

25

process of detecting specific elements in visual input and assembling them into a more complex form

feature analysis

26

progression from individual elements to the whole

bottom up processing

27

progression from the whole to the elements

top-down processing

28

illusion of movement created by presenting visual stimuli in rapid succession

phi phenomenon

29

inference about which distal stimuli could be responsible for proximal stimuli sensed

perceptual hypothesis

30

clues about distance based on the differing views of the 2 eyes

binocular depth cues

31

objects project images to slightly different locations on the right and left retinas, so the right and left eyes see slightly different views of the object

retinal disparity

32

clues about distance based on the image in either eye alone

monocular depth cues

33

involves images of objects at diff distances moving across the retina at diff rates

motion parallax

34

clues about distance that can be given in a flat picture

pictorial depth cues

35

tendency to experience a stable perception in the face of continually changing sensory input

perceptual constancy

36

runs the length of the spiralled cochlea, holds auditory receptors

basilar membrane

37

perception of pitch corresponds to the vibration of different portions along the basilar membrane

place theory

38

perception of pitch corresponds to the rate at which the entire basilar membrane vibrates

frequency theory

39

four primary tastes

sweet, sour, bitter, salty

40

incoming pain sensations must pass through a "gate" in the spinal cord that can be closed, thus blocking ascending pain signals

gate-control theory

41

responds to gravity and keeps you informed of your body's location in space

vestibular system

42

monitors the positions of various parts of your body

kinesthetic system