Chapter 6 - Learning Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 6 - Learning Deck (40):
1

any relatively durable change in behavior or knowledge that is due to experience

learning

2

irrational fears of specific objects or situation

phobias

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intense fear of being in public places where it may be difficult to escape from or in which it might be difficult to obtain help

agoraphobia

4

involves learning connections b/t events that occur in an organism's environment

conditioing

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type of learning in which a stimulus acquires the capacity to evoke a response that was originally evoked by another stimulus

classical conditioning (Pavlov)

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a stimulus that evokes an unconditioned response without previous conditioning

unconditioned stimulus

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unlearned reaction to an unconditioned stimulus that occurs without previous conditioning

unconditioned response

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previously neutral stimulus that has, through conditioning, acquired the capacity to evoke a conditioned response

conditioned stimulus

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learned reaction to a conditioned stimulus that occurs because of previous conditioning

conditioned response

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consists of any presentation of a stimulus or pair of stimuli

trial in classical conditoning

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changes in the liking of a stimulus that result from pairing that stimulus with other positive and negative stimuli

evaluative conditioning

12

the initial stage of learning something

acquisition

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the gradual weakening and disappearance of a conditioned response tendency

extinction

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reappearance of an extinguished response after a period of nonexposure to the conditioned stimulus

spontaneous recovery

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a response is extinguished in a diff environment than it was acquired, the extinguished response will reappear if the animal is returned to the original environment where acquisition took place

renewal effect

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when an organism that has learned a response to a specific stimulus responds in the same way to new stimuli that are similar to the original stimulus

stimulus generalization

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occurs when an organism that has learned a response to a specific stimulus does not respond in the same way to new stimuli that are similar to the original stimulus

stimulus discrimination

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which a conditioned stimulus functions as if it were an unconditioned stimulus

higher-order conditioning

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involves a species-specific predispostion to be conditioned in certain ways and not others

preparedness

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form of learning in which responses come to be controlled by their consequences

operant conditioning

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if a response in the presence of a stimulus leads to satisfying effects, the association b/t the stimulus and the response is strengthened

law of effect

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occurs when an event following a response increases an organism's tendency to make that response

reinforcement

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circumstances or rules that determine whether response lead to the presentation of reinforcers

reinforcement contingencies

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events that are inherently reinforcing because they satisfy biological needs

primary reinforcers

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events that acquire reinforcing qualities by being associated with primary reinforcers

secondary reinforcers

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consists of the reinforcement of closer and closer approximations of a desired response

shaping

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cues that influence operant behaviour by indicating the probable consequences of a response

discriminative stimuli

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occurs when every instance of a designated response is reinforced

continous reinforcement

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occurs when a designated response is reinforced only some of the time

intermittent reinforcement

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reinforcer is given after a fixed number of non reinforced responses

fixed-ratio schedule

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the reinforcer is given after a variable number of non reinforced responses

variable-ratio schedule

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the reinforcer is given for the first response that occurs after a fixed time interval has elapsed

fixed-interval schedule

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the reinforcer is given for the first response after a variable time interval has elapsed

variable-interval schedule

34

occurs when a response is strengthened b/c it is followed by the presentation of a rewarding stimulus

postive reinforcement

35

occurs when a response is strengthened b/c it is followed by the removal of an aversive stimulus

negative reinforcemnt

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an organism acquires a response that decreases or ends some aversive stimulation

escape learning

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an organism acquires a response that prevents some aversive stimulation from occuring

avoidance learning

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learning that is not apparent from behaviour when it first occurs

latent learning

39

occurs when an animal's innate response tendencies interfere with conditioning processes

instinctive drift

40

organism's responding is influenced by the observation of others, who are called models

observational learning