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A trade dispute between Virginia and Maryland, as well as Shay's Rebellion highlighted the weaknesses of this document.

Articles of Confederation


"Father of the Constitution"

James Madison


Published essays that defended the Constitution

The Federalist Papers


Appointed George Washington to lead the Continental Army

Second Continental Congress


A legislature made up of only one house



The formal document, written by Thomas Jefferson, which established the principles of government that justified colonies' the break with England

Declaration of Independence


The formal approval process of a constitution, constitutional amendment, or treaty



Where the delegates gathered to sign the official engrossed copy of the Constitution

Philadelphia, PA


Slaves counted as 3/5 of a person for purposes of representation in the house

Three-Fifths Compromise


Plan advocated a bicameral Congress, with the number of representatives based on state population or on the amount of revenue a state provided the national government

Virginia Plan


Unanimously elected to head the Constitutional Convention

George Washington


Home of George Washington

Mount Vernon


First signer of the Declaration of Independence

John Hancock


Plan that advocated a unicameral Congress maintaining the one-state one-vote principle of the Confederation

New Jersey Plan


Thought the Convention should have only amended the Articles of Confederation and the delegates went beyond their power when writing the Constitution



Proposed making representation in the lower house based on state population, whereas representation in the Senate would be equal regardless of size

Great Compromise


Act of protest in which individuals withhold their business or support



His writings in Second Treatise on Civil Government greatly influence the founding fathers

John Locke


Writer of The Declaration of Independence

Thomas Jefferson


Poorly attended convention, only five stages sent representatives

Annapolis Convention


The first internal tax, on goods produced and consumed entirely within the colonies

Stamp act


Began May 25, 1787, lasted four months, and resulted in the signing of the Constitution

Constitutional Convention


Last state to ratify the Articles of Constitution



King of England during the Revolutionary period

King George III


Led an uprising among farmers in Massachusetts who feared prison sentences for indebtness

Daniel Shay


Explain the Virginia plan and the New Jersey plan

Virginia Plan advocated a bicameral congress with the number of representatives based on statepopulation or amount of revenue the state provided the federal government. Election to the House would be by popular vote, with the House electing senators from nominees submitted by state legislatures.The legislature would have expanded powers, with Congress able to enforce laws over the states and elect both the chief executive and the national judiciary. The executive and judiciary branches could join together to veto congressional acts, but both houses of Congress could override their veto. The plan favored large states. The New Jersey Plan advocated strong state governments. The executive branchwould consist of several men chosen by the legislative branch and having no veto power. The legislative branch would consist of a unicameral congress that had the powers to tax and to regulate trade. The States would be represented equally in Congress, and this plan was favored by the small states.


Identify the catalytic events that shook colonial America and encouraged the independence movement

In 1760, the French and Indian War left England deeply in debt. The British Parliament wanted the colonies to help pay off those debts and therefore began introducing and imposing various taxes on the colonists. The colonists resented the presence of an army in their midst during peacetime and being forced to house and feed those soldiers. Also, George III ascended to the British throne and tried to reassert the political strength of the crown, which had been declining for more than a century. After years of neglect,all of this negative attention to the colonies was more than the colonists could bear as free men, and they began moving toward gaining their independence.


What law did the 1765 Stamp Act violate?

Petition of rights


For what two main reasons did people oppose ratification of the Constitution?

No Bill of Rights and too little power of states


What two factors allowed colonial self-government to grow during the colonial period?

British neglect and 3,000 miles between colonies