Flashcards in Chapter 4- The Establishment of Royal Supremacy Deck (27)
What happened to the five Carthusian monks that refused to swear the oath of supremacy?
They refused to speak, even when subjected to the most extreme torture. They were dragged through the streets of London, hung and while still alive had their insides cut out. When they were dead they were cut into four and then their heads cut off ready to be coated in tar and placed on London Bridge.
What did the treatment of the five Carthusian monks show about Henry?
Shows his determination to get his own way and have his marriage to Anne Boleyn and the legitimacy of their children recognised, even if it meant forcing the reluctant into acceptance.
Why always Cranmer promoted to Archbishop of Canterbury in 1532?
His promotion was surprising as he had previously held a position no higher than Archdeacon of Taunton. In 1529 he had produced a document which defended the argument for the Royal divorce. His promotion was the work of Henry, he offered important technical support to him in the construction of the arguments in support of the divorce.
What was key to convincing people that Henry had the powers he claimed and the power to divorce Catherine?
There should be an argument based on evidence to supports his claims and actions. The key to this was the evangelicals.
What was Cranmer's real skill?
Promoting intellectual justifications for the divorce campaign while recognising Henry's resistance to religious change and hatred of heretical ideas.
What was the main piece of evidence found to support Henry's divorce claim?
It was a challenge to the power of the pope in England. The 'Collectanea Statis Capiosa' was produced by Cranmer, in which he sought to prove that English bishops had the right to pronounce n Henry's divorce without reference to Rome. A wide range of sources was used to 'demonstrate' that King Lucius , first Christian ruler of England, had secured certain powers in A.D. 187, which had been 'lent' to Rome.
What were the political implications of what Cranmer had stated?
It went beyond the right of Henry to grant his own divorce. With the Pope's failure to respond, Henry was encouraged to use this intellectual justification to assume powers that would make the granting of the divorce legal. To achieve his ends, legislation would need to be passed which established the right to hear matters of dispute in England rather than refer them to Rome.
What was the act in restraint of appeals in 1533?
It was the act to prevent appeals to Rome which was carefully crafted by Cromwell. It was principally to block Catherine's appeal to Rome, but was rooted in historical precedent and grievances dating back to the 14th century. Parliamentary support was gained for the act as it enabled English courts to deal with cases that would otherwise go to Rome. Legal cases would be dealt with more quickly and would also keep money in English lawyers' hands. Importantly for Henry it enabled him to grant his own divorce and it was a general statute which placed all ecclesiastical jurisdiction in his control.
What did the act in restraint of appeals represent for Cromwell?
A significant step in his goal of expelling the papacy from England.
When did Henry and Anne get married?
January 1533 secretly by Cranmer. A child was due in September.
When was Henry and Catherine's marriage officially annulled?
On 5th April 1533 the convocation of Canterbury used that Henry and Catherine's marriage could not be nullified by the pope but only by that court. This decision, in addition to the act in restraint of appeals, allowed Henry's marriage to Anne to become legal in English law. This also made the child she was carrying legitimate.
How many parliamentary sessions were there in 1534?
- the first from 15th January to 30th March
- the second from 3rd November to 18th December
Both were managed by Cromwell to achieve a clearer and more formal break with Rome, which the previous acts had prefigured.
How did the first session reinforce earlier legislation?
- it confirmed the prohibition of payments of annates to Rome.
- granted the right to elect bishops and abbots to the King.
- confirmed the supreme legal authority of the secular courts by stating that appeals from church courts were to go to the King in Chancery.
What significant new legislation did the first session establish?
1. Act forbidding papal dispensation and payment of Peter's pence, 1534.
2. Act of Succession, 1534.
What was the Act forbidding papal dispensation and payment of Peter's pence, 1534?
- Put all ecclesiastical powers in the hands of the king.
- Restricted an archbishop's right to allow departures from canon law which had allowed priests to hold more than one parish; this was a major objection of many lay people and was seen to reinforce the view that the clergy were greedy.
- this act also prevented payment of 'Peter's pence' – a slang term for taxation paid to Rome - to the Pope.
What was the Act of Succession in 1534?
This act made Henry and Catherine's marriage invalid, declared Mary to be illegitimate and secured the succession of Henry and Anne's children. More importantly was the clause which meant it was an act of treason to deny the succession and the requirement that the whole nation should swear an oath to observe it.
What did the second Parliamentary session establish?
The Act of Supremacy in 1534.
What was the act of Supremacy?
- didn't make Henry supreme head of the church, just that he ought to be regarded as the supreme head.
- to support this role the the act included other provisions-
1. It gave the King the right to collect first fruits and tenths, a tax which had previously been paid by the clergy to Rome.
2. It made it treasonable to call the King or Queen a heretic or a schismatic.
What were the main areas for concern, with regards to opposition to royal supremacy?
Economic, political, religious principle.
What was the economic opposition to royal supremacy?
Merchants and tradesmen were afraid that the Pope would pressure rulers to restrict trade with England. England was dependent on the export of wool and cloth. English agriculture was dominated by the profits that would be secured from sheep and many textile workers were employed in the production of cloth. This was exported mainly from East Anglia to the principal port of Antwerp. Cloth was finished in Antwerp and exported throughout Europe. Charles V controlled Antwerp and much of Europe.
What was the political opposition to royal supremacy?
Some MPs opposed elements of the legislation. E.g. the direct payment of church taxes to the King rather than Rome suggested an undermining of parliaments power to control taxation. Up to this time Monarchs had to either live 'of his own' or seek specific permission from Parliament to claim taxes. Parliament had, in the past, refused to grant the right to collect taxes if it did not feel the threat was sufficient to warrant the taxation.
What was the religious principle opposition to royal supremacy?
There were those who objected to the divorce and the break with Rome who were loyal to the Pope. Such people included not just the clergy, although they were at the forefront of this group, but also members of the laity. Humanists had wanted to purify the texts on which the Catholic Church based its views, not to destroy the church itself.
What did Geoffrey Elton argue about the English Reformation?
"The English Reformation under Henry VIII produced no victims and only martyrs."
This was to a large extent true as the main opposition had come from those who were true to the papacy.
Who were the main oppositions to royal supremacy?
Elizabeth Barton, who was known as the Maid of Kent. Five Carthusian monks. Sir Thomas More, who had resigned as Chancellor. Bishop Fisher. All were tried and found guilty on the charge of treason introduced by the reformation parliament.
Who was Elizabeth Barton?
A servant girl who experienced visions. Her visions suggested that people should pray to the Virgin Mary and follow traditional teachings of the church. Those who wished to pressure the king into renouncing Anne and staying married to Catherine made use of Barton's cult. 1528- had meeting with Wolsey and two with Henry. 1532- prophesied that is Henry divorced Catherine he would soon die. Campaign to destroy her and provide crown to try her for treason. Allegedly confessed to making visions up in 1534, then was hanged at Tyburn.
Who was bishop fisher?
Made bishop of Rochester in 1504.
Protégée of Margaret Beaufort, humanist, thought to be real author of Henry's attack on Luther.
Became chief supporter of CofA. And stated that he would rather die than see the marriage dissolved.
1532- spoke openly about divorce and shortly after H&A marriage was arrested.
1534- bill of attainder was lodged against him for his support of Elizabeth Barton. It was however his refusal to swear to the oath of succession which led to his arrest for treason.
He was ordered to be hung drawn and quartered at Tyburn. However due to public outcry at the barbarity of treating a bishop led to his beheading in June 1535.