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What were the religious reformer groups during Henry's reign?

Believers in royal supremacy


What did humanists believe in?

Believed in basic principles of catholic faith,particularly in notion of free will. They sought to purify the ideas of religion from errors which had developed through translations.


Who was Thomas More?

He was a lawyer,author,humanist and advisor to Henry VIII. He occupied many positions including Lord Chancellor after the fall of Wolsey. He became more conservative in his defence of the Catholic Church which led to his resignation as chancellor when he refused to acknowledge Anne as queen and her heirs.


What were the development of humanist ideas based on?

On published texts rather than religious beliefs. Humanists did not challenge the beliefs of Catholicism merely the practises. They sought to reform the church from within.


What helped the growth of literacy in the 16th century?

1) Increase in grammar schools in country towns
2) Growth of the printing press and availability of books


Who in the Tudor family was a humanist?

Margaret Beaufort , Henry's grandmother, was influenced by humanism.
Henry and Catherine of Aragon also considered themselves humanists.


What was Lollardy?

Used to describe the followers of John Wycliff in the 14th century, it suggested that they were talking rubbish as if their tongues were too big for their mouths. John Wycliffe started the Lollard movement in the14th century and his followers shared his beliefs that questioned the role of priests as intermediaries between people and God. It became an underground movement, they may have conformed outwardly by attending the parish church but met in secret to share and discuss their ideas. Because it went underground it is difficult to say how widespread the movement was by the reign of Henry VIII.


What did Lollards believe in?

They believe that Christianity should be based on the Bible.
They went much further than humanists suggesting that everyone should have a bible of their own in English so that they could interpret it for themselves.
They rejected the idea that the priest was needed to be a go-between with God, you didn't have to confess your sins to a priest.
Didn't believe in transubstantiation.
Believed in predestination.


Why was Lollardy considered dangerous?

Because it attracted followers from the nobility and gentry including some members of the core.
When those who held views sympathetic to Wycliffe were banned from Oxford university where he had begun to preach they went into the provincial towns and spread ideas to a wider audience.
By the 16th century there were Lollard sympathisers in Leicester, Bristol, Coventry, London and in country areas in Kent and East Anglia.


Who were Lollards in Henry VIII's reign?

Craftsmen and merchants


What was Lutheranism?

Protestantism based on the ideas of Martin Luther. Luther wanted to take the church back to its roots. His initial protest was against indulgences which he argued were corrupt.


What was the extent of Lutheranism during Henry's reign?

Few in England where are attracted to the ideas of Luther. Certainly none of the nobility were supporters.


Who where two key individuals that were influenced by Lutheran ideas?

Thomas Cramner – who from about 1531, agreed with Lutheran ideas. He became Archbishop of Canterbury Canterbury and helped to secure the break from Rome.
Thomas Cromwell – who had become Henry's first Minister and also helped to guide Parliament through the break with Rome was influenced by Martin Luther.


What did John Wycliffe argue in relation to the church and the monarchy?

That it was a sin to oppose the power of the king. Also he stated that those in the service of the church should have regard for the laws of the state.


Who was William Tyndale?

He translated the bible into English and arranged for its printing.he fled to the Netherlands to publish other works that challenged Catholic ideas. However, he was pursued by agents of Thomas More and burnt as a heretic in 1536.


Who were some believers in royal supremacy?

Dr Henry Standish, William Tyndale, Martin Luther, John Wycliffe.


What did Christopher St Germain provide Henry with?

The legal basis for extending his authority by arguing that the real authority over the church in England came not from the Pope, but from the king.


Who was keen to protect Catholicism from Protestant ideas?

Thomas More. The most important for More was to maintain the unity of Christendom.


What did More discuss in his work 'Utopia'?

Stressed importance of a strict hierarchy.
All challenges to the existing hierarchy were perceived as dangers.
( Luther and Tyndale greatest danger to beliefs of the catholic faith.) not in book?


What was the relation between More and Luther?

More helped Henry write his response 'Defence of the Seven Sacraments' to Luther's 'On the Babylonian Captivity of the Church'. When Luther replied with his 'Against Henry, King of the English', More was given
the task of constructing a response, which he did in his 'Reply to Luther'. This exchange was criticised for being a series of personal attacks, but it strengthened More's commitment to the forms of order and discipline which he had outlined in 'Utopia'.


In what ways did Thomas More show that he was a religious man?

He actively worked to bring heretics to punishment.
Wore a hair shirt.
Regularly spent time with the monks at the London Charterhouse.
Believed that those who preached and published ideas which were against those of the Catholic Church should be forced to either renounce their views or die.
Accounts produced just after his death stated More had instruments of torture in his basement to force those brought before him to provide information or change their views and be saved.


What were two of the austere monastic orders that supported the existing systems of belief?

Observant Franciscan Friars
The Carthusians


What were the Observant Franciscan Friars to Henry?

They acted as confessors and preachers to Henry VIII as they had done to his father. Also advised him on spiritual matters.


What was the Aragonese faction?

A faction grouped around Catherine of Aragon which sought to protect the Catholic faith and the position of those who were loyal to the Catholic Church.


What things did CofA do that showed her piety?

She went on pilgrimages, showed religious devotion. Was supported by her spiritual advisor whose loyalty was firmly to the church, Chapuys.


What did the Aragonese faction oppose?

The power and influence of Cardinal Wolsey.


Who were some key members of the Aragonese faction.

Thomas More and Bishop Fisher loosely connected.
Strength of the faction lay with it's supporters within court- Sir Nicholas Carew, gentleman of the privy chamber, Sir Henry Guildford controller of the Household. Lord Darcy and Lord Hussey.


When did the Aragonese faction come to Catherine's defence?

When the strength of the opposing Boleyn faction grew and as Henry tussled with the idea of annulling his marriage to Catherine.


What happened to the members of the faction after Catherine was sent away from court and her marriage eventually and annulled?

More and Fisher were executed.
Exile from court for Lord Darcy and Lord Hussey. Darcy to Pontefract, Hussey with Mary when she was sent from court.