What is Wilson’s view about the last years of Henry?
“Faction dominated the last six and a half years of Henry’s reign. No single individual emerged to direct policy.”
Wilson argues strongly for the existence of faction.
Who had the focus on policies in the later years of Henry’s reign?
The Privy Chamber, those allowed into the inner sanctum had the greatest influence. Previously Wolsey and Cromwell had had the most influence.
What was the significance of the absence of a chief minister?
Meant that disputes between different interest groups were more exposed, to contemporaries and modern historians.
What evidence of factions had there been previous to 1540?
The Boleyns had worked with their relation the Duke of Norfolk to bring down Wolsey. Also the downfall of Thomas Cromwell owed much to the scheming of the Duke of Norfolk at the time of Henry’s marriage to Anne of Cleves.
What are the two arguments against the control Henry had over government after 1540?
Henry had full control and manipulated the factions as he knew that they were competing to gain his favour.
The factions were influencing Henry.
What did the conservative faction want and how did they plot to achieve this?
Wanted- Catholicism, influence, personal gain
How?- marriage to Catherine Howard, plots against Cranmer and Catherine Parr.
What did the reformist faction want and how did they achieve this?
Wanted- Protestantism, influence, personal gain.
How?- marriage to Catherine Parr, control of the dry stamp.
What did the downfall of Cromwell and the marriage to Catherine Howard lead to?
Placed the conservative faction in favour, led by the Duke of Norfolk, in the ascendancy.
What did Catherine Howard’s behaviour lead to?
Brought disgrace on the conservative faction, shifting influence to the reformist faction led by Edward Seymour. This did not however lead to the disappearance of the Howards, who after a short period in the country, returned to court.
What was Henry’s marriage to Catherine Parr most likely for?
Companionship in his old age. Doesn’t seem to be motivated by the urge to provide an heir like previous marriages.
What were the religious beliefs of Catherine Parr?
- much debate about her religious sympathies.
- were several attempts to link her to Anne Askew.
- brought up Catholic.
- literate and influenced by Erasmus. Conservative faction sought to demonstrate that she went beyond the humanist views of Erasmus and was sympathetic to Protestant beliefs.
What did Henry expect from his wives?
- their views to be sympathetic to his own
- David Loades made it clear that Henry would not tolerate being lectured on any matter, but particularly on religion by Catherine Parr.
- wives’ views needed to be subservient to his own.
- same time he relied on their active participation in the government of the country. CofA had headed a successful military campaign against the scots in 1513 and from July to September Catherine Parr was appointed queen regent by Henry as he went on his last, unsuccessful campaign in France.
What did Catherine do as regent?
Organised provisions, finances and musters for Henry’s French campaign, signed five royal proclamations, and maintained constant contact with he lieutenant on the northern marches over the unstable situation in Scotland.
What did Catherine Parr do when she was accused of heresy according to John Foxe writing in 1583?
She went to Henry’s chamber where she stated that women were inferior to men and that they should do as their husbands direct them to. She then said she would be guided by him as she had perhaps been influenced by erroneous opinions. She therefore avoided being caught up in faction rivalry.
How did the conservatives try to undermine Henry’s confidence in Cranmer?
Linking him with heretical views.
What was the prebendaries plot?
It originated in a complaint made by conservatives in Kent against what they believed were heretical views which criticised, among other things, masses for the dead. Named after five canons of Canterbury cathedral who made the original complaint, although linked to the plot were approximately 300 people, 240 of whom were priests
How did the conservative faction try to link Cranmer to heretical views?
1543- two reformers in Kent, richard turner and john bland. Brought before privy council. Just as the articles against these two men were to be presented at the council, additional articles were added by Stephen Gardiner’s nephew attacking Cranmer and linking him to what was known as the prebendaries plot. Articles delivered to council in London
What was G.W Bernard’s view of religious policy?
It was consistently that of Henry himself , rather than the product of the differing influences of the factions.