Flashcards in Chapter 3- The Royal Divorce Deck (51)
What was David Starkey's reason for Henry seeking the annulment?
Henry's courtship with Anne.
What was another prompt for Henry seeking the annulment?
The questioning of Mary's legitimacy by the French.
Why was Henry's marriage to Catherine controversial?
Because Catherine had previously been married to Henry's elder brother, Arthur, Prince of Wales, who had died in 1502, after less than six months of marriage. Therefore the marriage had required a papal dispensation as a marriage between a man and the window of his brother was forbidden by canon law.
When did Henry and Catherine of Aragon get married?
11th of June 1509. Then on 24th June Henry and Catherine were crowned King and Queen of England at Westminster Abbey.
What have most historians suggested to be the main reason for Henry seeking the annulment?
To protect the succession
Despite Mary's education in matters of state, why was the idea of a woman on the throne an unthinkable idea?
Because the previous queen Matilda, whose accession in 1135 led to the seizure of the crown by her cousin Stephen and civil unrest.
Why was the issue of succession further complicated?
The fact that Henry had an illegitimate son, the Duke of Richmond, born to his mistress Bessie Blount in 1519.
What were Henry's three options to solve the succession issue?
1. Legitimise the Duke of Richmond, which would be unpopular with the nobility and might prompt action by someone with a claim to the throne.
2. He could marry Mary off asap. Then hope she would bear a male heir in his lifetime to inherit the crown on his death.
3. Get rid of Catherine and start again.
When did Henry start to question formally his marriage with Catherine?
May 1527. The spanish ambassador reported to the Spanish king that Henry had secretly assembled a group of bishops and lawyers to sign a declaration that his marriage to Catherine was null and void.
What did Henry claim about his marriage to Catherine in 1527?
That his marriage to Catherine was invalid, as she had been his brother's wife, and that's Pope Julius II, who had granted permission for the marriage to take place in 1509, had been wrong.
Why did Henry surmise that his marriage must have been sinful in the eyes of God?
He had failed to produce a legitimate son with Catherine who had survived. Henry had, however, sired a son with his mistress.
Who did Henry need to annul his marriage?
Pope Clement VI
Why was the demand for annulment difficult for Henry?
1. The original granting of the dispensation
2. The biblical basis of the claim that the marriage was invalid
3. The pope was virtually a prisoner of Emperor Charles V who was Catherine's nephew
Where were the explanations that Henry sought in the Bible?
Old Testamnent offered two interpretations on marrying your brother's wife:
Why was Henry's approach questioned?
Because technically he was not childless – he had a living daughter.
Problem was further complicated by the condition of Catherine's marriage to Arthur, explanation offered by Leviticus depended on Arthur and Catherine having ' dwelt' together.Catherine constantly asserted that the marriage had not been consummated. Henry claimed in 1509 that this was true, although he later denied this.
How did the 'law' of Deuteronomy regarding marriage to a brother's wife help Henry?
It could be seen only as a social custom of Jewish society; Christians we are not bound to obey it.
How did Leviticus help Henry in his divorce proceedings?
As the older of the two sections which give laws about marriage, Leviticus could be seen as binding on Christians. Was possible to argue that the Hebrew word used in the bible for 'childless' meant 'male childless' and not 'female childless', so Henry's marriage must have infringed natural and divine law.
What did Henry hope would happen when he confronted Catherine late in 1527 about the illegality of their marriage?
He hoped that Catherine watch with door quietly into an honorary, excepting his interpretation of this situation. Unfortunately Henry had already shown interest in and 11. This made Catherine's determination to protect her marriage all the more implacable and the task of Chancellor, Cardinal Wolsey, in persuading the Pope to grant the annulment all the more difficult.
When did Henry first seem to become attracted to Anne Boleyn?
Around 1526. He had tired of her sister Mary. There is considerable dispute as to when an actual relationship with Henry began and whether it pre-dated Henry's decision to seek an annulment of his marriage to Catherine.
What evidence is there that Anne Boleyn was interested in theology?
She was exposed in France to new learning and religious ideas.
She was also responsible for giving Henry a copy of Simon Fish's book 'Supplication for the Beggars', which criticised greedy and overfed clerics.
She was in regular contact with a number of clerics who were questioning the old orthodoxies of the Church.
Why were Henry and Catherine's divorce proceedings delayed in Rome?
In December 1527, negotiations began in Rome. Most negotiations in the Vatican where protracted but this was even more so. As a result of the Pope's position as a virtual prisoner of Charles V, he was unable to decide in favour. To delay matters the Pope sent Cardinal Campeggio to hear Henry's case in England.
What had changed in the court during the time of the Pope deciding on Henry's divorce?
Anne was now the King's constant companion although Catherine was still Queen. Anne played the main role in court life.
When did the court open at Blackfriars in order to hear the case for divorce?
What did Catherine do at the Blackfriars court?
She appeared resolute in her position as Henry's legal wife. She made impassioned pleas to Campeggio and to Henry. She was as adamant that her marriage to Arthur was not consummated and that the dispensation was valid.
What did Campeggio announce when a decision was expected?
That the court was part of the court in Rome and hat the case was being adjourned to meet there in October.
How did Campeggio's announcement affect Catherine?
She had already made it clear that she would, in any case, appeal to Rome should the commission's decision go against her.
How did Campeggio's decision affect Wolsey?
He could not do anything to stop the decision. In October 1529 when the court did not meet in Rome, Wolsey was replaced as chancellor by Thomas More.
Why did Wolsey fail to achieve Henry's divorce?
Henry had expected Molesey to achieve the annulment of his marriage by using his position as Cardinal and legatus a latere to influence the Pope. Unfortunately for Henry and Wolsley, Pope Clement VIII was the virtual prisoner of the HRE Charles V, in Castel Sant'Angelo in Rome. The influence of Catherine's nephew was far greater than any that Wolsley could bring to bear and was much more immediate.
Why was the title 'the reformation parliament' misleading?
The acts that were passed fundamentally changed the relationship between England and he Catholic Church. However there were no acts passed that changed religious beliefs and the members that met in the House of Commons and Lords had no agenda for religious reform.