Chapter 44 Geriatric Emergencies Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 44 Geriatric Emergencies Deck (75)
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1

1. At the present time, the ratio of caregivers to older people is:
A) low.
B) high.
C) adequate.
D) increasing consistently.

Ans: A
Page: 2080
Type: General Knowledge

2

2. Following retirement, many older people:
A) experience a rapid decline in their underlying health and become incapacitated within 12 months.
B) often experience an improvement in their overall health because the stress of working has been eliminated.
C) return to work within 6 months because their retirement pension does not support them adequately.
D) commonly experience decreased self-esteem because they no longer feel useful or productive in society.

Ans: D
Page: 2081
Type: General Knowledge

3

3. Aging is a linear process, which means that:
A) the older we get, the faster our bodies decline in function.
B) the rate at which we lose functions does not increase with age.
C) older people exhibit the cumulative results of a longer aging process.
D) older adults experience decreased functions faster than younger adults.

Ans: B
Page: 2081
Type: General Knowledge

4

4. Which of the following statements regarding aging is correct?
A) Although aging causes various anatomic changes, physiologic functions generally remain intact.
B) Health care providers may attribute genuine disease symptoms to age, resulting in inadequate care.
C) All of the tissues and organs in the human body undergo the effects of aging at the same rate.
D) Health care providers typically recognize the normal changes of aging and tend not to render unnecessary care.

Ans: B
Page: 2082
Type: General Knowledge

5

5. The heart hypertrophies with age, MOST likely in response to:
A) a progressive increase in preload and chronic myocardial stretching.
B) left-sided heart failure that results in chronic pulmonary hypertension.
C) a chronically increased afterload caused by arteriosclerotic blood vessels.
D) a significant decline in cardiac output due to a reduction in stroke volume.

Ans: C
Page: 2082
Type: General Knowledge

6

6. An increase in blood pressure that commonly occurs with aging is physiologically exacerbated by:
A) a compensatory increase in preload and cardiac ejection fraction.
B) a decrease in stroke volume due to age-induced cardiomyopathy.
C) an overproduction of collagen and decreased quantities of elastin.
D) the patient's noncompliance with his or her antihypertensive drugs.

Ans: C
Page: 2082
Type: General Knowledge

7

7. A decreased number of pacemaker cells in the sinoatrial node would MOST likely contribute to a decline in cardiac output secondary to:
A) heart block.
B) bradycardia.
C) tachycardia.
D) atrial fibrillation.

Ans: B
Page: 2083
Type: General Knowledge

8

8. Decreased elasticity of the lungs and calcification of the costochondral cartilage results in:
A) an increase in residual lung volume.
B) a significant increase in vital capacity.
C) a decrease in airway size and resistance.
D) a decrease in the total amount of air in the lungs.

Ans: A
Page: 2082
Type: General Knowledge

9

9. Elderly patients experience a slower physiologic response to hypoxemia and hypercarbia because of:
A) decreased sensitivity to changes in arterial blood content.
B) a chronically elevated partial pressure of carbon dioxide.
C) an increased PaO2 due to a natural increase in respirations.
D) failure of the baroreceptors to detect blood pressure changes.

Ans: A
Page: 2082
Type: General Knowledge

10

10. An elderly person is at increased risk for aspiration, primarily from:
A) atrophy of the epiglottis.
B) a decreased ability to swallow.
C) slowing of the ciliary mechanisms.
D) decreased cough and gag reflexes.

Ans: D
Page: 2082
Type: General Knowledge

11

11. Aging kidneys have a decreased glomerular filtration rate, which predisposes an older person to all of the following conditions, EXCEPT:
A) hyperkalemia.
B) hypernatremia.
C) profound dehydration.
D) acute volume overload.

Ans: C
Page: 2085
Type: General Knowledge

12

12. When elderly patients are prescribed medications, the risk for drug toxicity increases because of:
A) an increase in the glomerular filtration rate.
B) age-related changes in hepatic enzyme systems.
C) the presence of chronic conditions, such as diabetes.
D) an increase in the production of antidiuretic hormone.

Ans: B
Page: 2085
Type: General Knowledge

13

13. The leading cause of death from infection in Americans older than 65 years of age is:
A) nephritis.
B) pneumonia.
C) encephalitis.
D) meningitis.

Ans: B
Page: 2085
Type: General Knowledge

14

14. When assessing an unresponsive older person's airway, it is MOST important to remember that:
A) delayed gastric emptying increases the risk of aspiration.
B) age-related tooth loss may cause obstruction of the airway.
C) a marked reduction in saliva causes dryness of the oral mucosa.
D) the head should not be extended due to weakened cervical vertebrae.

Ans: A
Page: 2085
Type: General Knowledge

15

15. Therapeutic doses of certain drugs may reach toxic levels in older people due to deterioration of the:
A) liver.
B) spleen.
C) gallbladder.
D) intestinal tract.

Ans: A
Page: 2085
Type: General Knowledge

16

16. Aging brings a widespread decrease in bone mass, especially:
A) in postmenopausal women.
B) in men over 50 years of age.
C) if the person falls frequently.
D) in the presence of hypertension.

Ans: A
Page: 2086
Type: General Knowledge

17

17. Which of the following central nervous system functions does NOT change as a person ages?
A) Postural stability
B) Cognitive speed
C) Memory retrieval
D) Intelligence level

Ans: D
Page: 2083
Type: General Knowledge

18

18. When assessing an older person, you should remember that it is common for him or her to:
A) slur his or her words.
B) present with hemiparesis.
C) respond slowly to questions.
D) not understand your questions.

Ans: C
Page: 2083
Type: General Knowledge

19

19. MOST age-related visual disturbances are the result of:
A) diabetic retinopathy.
B) cataracts or glaucoma.
C) macular degeneration.
D) retinal artery occlusion.

Ans: B
Page: 2083
Type: General Knowledge

20

20. A common cause of hearing loss in the elderly is presbycusis, which is defined as:
A) a progressive loss of hearing, particularly in the low frequencies, which explains why their television is turned up.
B) an acute hearing impairment caused by idiopathic rupture of the tympanic membrane in the middle part of the ear.
C) a degenerative condition in which the person experiences difficulty hearing both low and high frequency sounds.
D) loss of high-frequency sounds and the inability to differentiate a particular sound from background noise.

Ans: D
Page: 2083-2084
Type: General Knowledge

21

21. Typical signs and symptoms of Meniere disease include all of the following, EXCEPT:
A) vertigo.
B) tinnitus.
C) otorrhea.
D) hearing loss.

Ans: C
Page: 2084
Type: General Knowledge

22

22. Impaired proprioception predisposes an elderly person to:
A) falls.
B) skin tears.
C) depression.
D) hearing loss.

Ans: A
Page: 2084
Type: General Knowledge

23

23. Physiologic age-related decreases in skin elasticity are the result of:
A) decreased collagen and elastin production.
B) chronic use of corticosteroid medications.
C) slower replenishment of epidermal cells.
D) frequent fungal or viral skin infections.

Ans: A
Page: 2085-2086
Type: General Knowledge

24

24. Due to the process of aging, an elderly person commonly experiences:
A) increased thirst.
B) moderate hyperglycemia.
C) increased insulin secretion.
D) high fever with a minor illness.

Ans: B
Page: 2086
Type: General Knowledge

25

25. Failure of the heart's primary pacemaker and the development of alternate pacemakers in the atria would MOST likely result in:
A) junctional rhythms.
B) atrioventricular block.
C) ventricular ectopy.
D) atrial fibrillation.

Ans: D
Page: 2083
Type: General Knowledge

26

26. Which of the following conditions is the older patient at greatest risk for?
A) Chronic hypotension
B) Rheumatoid arthritis
C) Peripheral vascular disease
D) Acute myocardial infarction

Ans: C
Page: 2083
Type: General Knowledge

27

27. Which of the following cardiac dysrhythmias is associated with the highest risk of stroke?
A) AV heart block
B) Sinus tachycardia
C) Junctional rhythm
D) Atrial fibrillation

Ans: D
Page: 2083
Type: General Knowledge

28

28. Which of the following conditions would MOST likely impair pulmonary function by limiting lung volume and maximal inspiratory pressure?
A) Asthma
B) Kyphosis
C) Spondylosis
D) Osteoporosis

Ans: B
Page: 2084
Type: General Knowledge

29

29. Hypertensive emergencies in the geriatric population:
A) require a controlled decline in blood pressure that often cannot be achieved in the prehospital setting.
B) can cause a ruptured cerebral or aortic aneurysm and should be treated in the field with antihypertensives.
C) are relatively uncommon owing to increased elasticity of the blood vessels, which facilitates vasodilation.
D) are typically treated in the prehospital setting with beta blocker medications or a slow nitroglycerin infusion.

Ans: A
Page: 2094
Type: General Knowledge

30

30. Which of the following is the MOST common respiratory infection that causes death in the elderly population?
A) Pneumocystis carinii
B) Respiratory syncytial virus
C) Pneumococcus bacteria
D) Mycobacterium tuberculosis

Ans: C
Page: 2092
Type: General Knowledge