Chapter 49 Hazardous Materials Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 49 Hazardous Materials Deck (50):
1

1. If you are trained in hazardous materials at the awareness level, you should be able to:
A) recognize potential hazards and the need for additional resources.
B) perform patient care activities in the command and support center.
C) coordinate activities at the scene of a hazardous materials incident.
D) care for patients who may present a risk of secondary contamination.

Ans: A
Page: 2258
Type: General Knowledge

2

2. An individual trained at the hazardous materials technician level is trained to:
A) provide medical support for hazardous materials teams.
B) perform patient care activities in an incident's warm zone.
C) care for patients contaminated with a hazardous material.
D) perform patient care activities in an incident's cold zone.

Ans: D
Page: 2258
Type: General Knowledge

3

3. At the scene of a hazardous materials incident, the paramedic would MOST likely be called upon to:
A) provide initial decontamination in the warm zone.
B) support hazardous materials teams through medical monitoring.
C) don a breathing apparatus and rescue contaminated patients.
D) provide emergency medical care in the incident's hot zone.

Ans: B
Page: 2258
Type: General Knowledge

4

4. After ensuring your own safety, which of the following is your next priority at the scene of a hazardous materials incident?
A) Identify the hazardous material involved.
B) Immediately move patients to a safe place.
C) Evacuate residents within a 3-mile radius.
D) Begin decontaminating all involved patients.

Ans: A
Page: 2258
Type: General Knowledge

5

5. When approaching an overturned tanker truck that is not displaying a warning placard, it is MOST important for the paramedic to maintain a high index of suspicion because:
A) all tanker trucks carry some type of hazardous material, regardless of whether a placard is displayed.
B) many companies that transport hazardous materials do not abide by federal law and do not display warning placards.
C) tankers carrying small amounts of a hazardous material may not be required by law to display a warning placard.
D) warning placards are only displayed on one side of tanker trucks, and that side may not be visible due to the crash.

Ans: C
Page: 2261
Type: General Knowledge

6

6. Which of the following statements regarding the transport of a hazardous material is correct?
A) Federal law requires a truck to display a placard if it contains small amounts of several materials that become highly toxic when combined.
B) Even if the law does not require a truck to display a placard, the driver of the truck is required to carry documentation of the chemical being transported.
C) A tanker truck that displays a “Please drive carefully” placard is likely not carrying a hazardous material and should be considered safe to approach.
D) Any tanker truck or train that carries a hazardous material is required by federal law to display a warning placard, regardless of the quantity it is carrying.

Ans: B
Page: 2261
Type: General Knowledge

7

7. Upon arriving at the scene of an overturned tanker truck or train derailment, you should be MOST suspicious that a hazardous material is involved if:
A) any type of fluid is leaking from the overturned tanker or railroad car.
B) the truck driver or train conductor is unconscious and still in the vehicle.
C) a visible cloud or dark smoke is escaping from the tanker or railroad car.
D) multiple patients are unconscious or are experiencing respiratory distress.

Ans: D
Page: 2259
Type: General Knowledge

8

8. If you are the first unit to arrive at a scene and observe any signs suggesting that a hazardous materials incident has occurred, you should:
A) place yellow or red police tape around the danger zone and begin moving bystanders away from the scene.
B) remain upwind from the scene if possible and immediately call the hazardous materials response team.
C) don gloves, a mask, and a gown and begin moving injured patients away from the area surrounding the incident.
D) immediately move any patients to a designated area and begin decontaminating them by dousing them with water.

Ans: B
Page: 2259
Type: General Knowledge

9

9. You should be particularly suspicious that a hazardous materials incident is the result of a terrorist attack when it occurs at a/an:
A) government building.
B) manufacturing facility.
C) agricultural operation.
D) educational institution.

Ans: A
Page: 2259
Type: General Knowledge

10

10. When assessing a potential hazardous materials incident from a distance:
A) your unit should be positioned such that you can feel a breeze on your face.
B) the entire scene should be covered by your hand held out at arm's length.
C) you should use binoculars to obtain a clearer picture of the entire incident.
D) the unit should be in a low-lying area since most hazardous materials rise.

Ans: C
Page: 2259
Type: General Knowledge

11

11. Knowledge of the specific hazardous material involved in an incident is MOST important because:
A) this information will determine how many hazardous materials vehicles will be required.
B) knowledge of the material involved dictates the square mileage of evacuation.
C) you will have an understanding of how the material will affect a patient's health.
D) many hazardous material exposures require treatment at a hyperbaric chamber.

Ans: C
Page: 2259
Type: General Knowledge


12

12. Where would you MOST likely find a material safety data sheet that provides information about a hazardous material?
A) At a tanker truck's destination location
B) At a permanent manufacturing or storage facility
C) Affixed to the roof of a commercial tanker truck
D) In a steel box in the conductor's cabin of a train

Ans: B
Page: 2262
Type: General Knowledge

13

13. Which of the following would be of LEAST value when trying to determine the type of hazardous material a commercial tanker truck is carrying?
A) Waybill
B) CHEMTREC
C) Bill of lading
D) Emergency Response Guidebook

Ans: A
Page: 2259, 2261-2262
Type: General Knowledge

14

14. When staging at an appropriate distance from the scene until the hazardous materials team arrives to investigate the chemical leaking from an overturned tanker, you should:
A) be able to read the vehicle's safety placard with the naked eye.
B) stay in a location that is upwind and downhill from the incident.
C) notify area hospitals and tell them to prepare for mass casualties.
D) check the wind direction periodically and be prepared to relocate.

Ans: D
Page: 2268-2269
Type: General Knowledge

15

15. A Computer-Aided Management of Emergency Operations (CAMEO) device is used by hazardous materials teams to:
A) determine a hazardous material's explosive limits by monitoring wind speed and environmental temperature.
B) monitor the levels of hydrogen sulfide and carbon monoxide contained in a wide variety of hazardous materials.
C) determine the pH of the hazardous material, which will assist in identifying the most appropriate neutralizing agent to use.
D) help predict downwind concentrations of hazardous materials based on the input of environmental factors into a computer model.

Ans: D
Page: 2269
Type: General Knowledge

16

16. Department of Transportation (DOT) Class 1 chemicals are:
A) corrosive.
B) explosive.
C) combustible.
D) radioactive.

Ans: B
Page: 2260
Type: General Knowledge

17

17. Department of Transportation (DOT) Class 8 chemicals are:
A) explosive.
B) flammable.
C) corrosive.
D) radioactive.

Ans: C
Page: 2260
Type: General Knowledge

18

18. A blue placard specifically indicates that a chemical is a _________ hazard.
A) fire
B) health
C) reactivity
D) explosive

Ans: B
Page: 2262
Type: General Knowledge

19

19. If you discover that a seemingly ordinary EMS call is actually a hazardous materials incident, you should:
A) immediately notify the dispatcher and request the appropriate resources.
B) isolate the incident as much as possible to avoid the risk of harm to others.
C) immediately establish a hot zone and cordon it off with red or yellow tape.
D) size up the scene, assessing factors such as wind direction and terrain features.

Ans: A
Page: 2258-2259, 2269
Type: General Knowledge

20

20. Which of the following statements regarding the warm zone at a hazardous materials incident is correct?
A) Patients who are brought to the warm zone by trained rescuers should already have been decontaminated.
B) A standard-size warm zone is generally 50 feet in all directions, but may be smaller depending on the incident.
C) The warm zone is also known as the contamination zone and is only accessible by properly trained rescuers.
D) It may be necessary to perform urgent lifesaving care in the warm zone before a patient is fully decontaminated.

Ans: D
Page: 2268, 2275-2276
Type: General Knowledge

21

21. Triage and emergency medical treatment should be performed:
A) in the hot zone.
B) in the cold zone.
C) in the warm zone.
D) at least 100 feet from the incident.

Ans: B
Page: 2268
Type: General Knowledge

22

22. Level A personal protective equipment:
A) is designed to protect the rescuer against a known agent and is worn with an air-purifying respirator.
B) fully encapsulates the hazardous materials technician, including his or her self-contained breathing apparatus.
C) is required when a technician needs protection from splashes and inhaled toxins but does not need to be fully encapsulated.
D) provides the same degree of protection as a fire fighter's turnout gear, and is typically worn in the cold zone.

Ans: B
Page: 2269, 2271
Type: General Knowledge

23

23. What level of personal protective equipment is typically worn by the hazardous materials decontamination team in the warm zone?
A) Level A
B) Level B
C) Level C
D) Level D

Ans: B
Page: 2269, 2272
Type: General Knowledge

24

24. Level ___ personal protective equipment would MOST likely be worn during transport of patients with the potential of secondary contamination.
A) A
B) B
C) C
D) D

Ans: C
Page: 2272
Type: General Knowledge

25

25. The severity with which a hazardous material interferes with the body's internal processes is LEAST affected by the:
A) part of the body exposed.
B) route of chemical exposure.
C) presence of an underlying illness.
D) chemical's dose and concentration.

Ans: A
Page: 2272
Type: General Knowledge

26

26. The direct exposure of a patient to a hazardous material is called:
A) acute infection.
B) chemical transference.
C) systemic intoxication.
D) primary contamination.

Ans: D
Page: 2272
Type: General Knowledge

27

27. Secondary contamination with a hazardous material occurs when:
A) toxic gases diffuse from one person to another person.
B) systemic effects of the hazardous material are observed.
C) an acutely contaminated person coughs near another person.
D) toxins are transferred to another person by contaminated objects.


Ans: D
Page: 2272
Type: General Knowledge

28

28. The local effects of a hazardous material may present with:
A) restlessness.
B) blister formation.
C) nausea and vomiting.
D) blood in the urine.

Ans: B
Page: 2272
Type: General Knowledge

29

29. Systemic effects following exposure to a hazardous material:
A) primarily affect the hepatic system.
B) may be delayed for hours or even years.
C) are typically seen immediately in the field.
D) are characterized by erythema and blisters.

Ans: B
Page: 2272
Type: General Knowledge

30

30. According to the dose effect principle:
A) the greater the length of time or the greater the concentration of the material, the greater the effect will be on the body.
B) biotransformation and elimination of a chemical is not possible if the exposure involved a large or concentrated dose.
C) the effects of a hazardous material will be more severe if it is ingested rather than inhaled or absorbed through the skin.
D) an extremely toxic hazardous material will have the same effect on the body, regardless of the length of the exposure.

Ans: A
Page: 2272
Type: General Knowledge

31

31. For the purposes of hazardous materials, vapor pressure pertains to:
A) any liquids held inside any type of enclosed container.
B) any liquid that evaporates quickly when not contained.
C) where a vapor might go once released from a container.
D) the speed at which a liquid evaporates when not contained.

Ans: A
Page: 2272
Type: General Knowledge

32

32. The temperature at which a liquid fuel gives off sufficient vapors to cause a fire when an ignition source is present is called the:
A) flash point.
B) vapor density.
C) flammable range.
D) ignition temperature.

Ans: C
Page: 2273
Type: General Knowledge

33

33. When a base substance is placed on a burn caused by an acid:
A) the burn will be confined to the epidermis.
B) an exothermic reaction is less likely to occur.
C) the toxicity of the acid is effectively neutralized.
D) heat is generated as a by-product of the reaction.

Ans: D
Page: 2275
Type: General Knowledge

34

34. The threshold limit value/ceiling of a chemical is the concentration that:
A) a person can be exposed to for 1 hour.
B) a person should never be exposed to.
C) is only toxic if inhaled into the lungs.
D) is nontoxic during short-term exposure.

Ans: B
Page: 2274
Type: General Knowledge

35

35. It is MOST important to park your ambulance upwind and uphill from a hazardous materials incident scene because:
A) if the chemical ignites and explodes, the fallout from the blast will most likely sink into valleys and ditches instead of rising.
B) the risk of being contaminated is minimal if the chemical travels, and you will have greater visibility of the entire incident scene.
C) hazardous chemicals that turn to gas rarely have a vapor density that is heavier than the air, regardless of the amount of chemical.
D) the vapor density of many chemicals is less than that of the air, causing the vapor to rise and dissipate as it travels with the wind.

Ans: D
Page: 2273
Type: General Knowledge

36

36. If a sufficient concentration of a hazardous material mixes with air and reaches its lower flammable limit:
A) the material can burn in the air or explode.
B) the vapors will begin to burn, but will not explode.
C) the chemical is said to have reached its flash point.
D) there will not be enough oxygen to support combustion.

Ans: A
Page: 2274
Type: General Knowledge

37

37. In contrast to the lethal concentration of a chemical, the lethal dose is:
A) a single dose that causes death when exposure occurs exclusively via the inhalation route.
B) the dose expected to cause death when administered over a specified period of time.
C) a single dose that causes death when exposure occurs by any route other than inhalation.
D) the dose expected to cause death when administered by any route other than absorption.

Ans: C
Page: 2274
Type: General Knowledge

38

38. Decontaminating a patient with copious amounts of water:
A) should not include the eyes, as this often causes further injury.
B) should involve the use of a brush to maximize decontamination.
C) decreases the dose effect of the hazardous material on the patient.
D) is generally discouraged, as this may cause runoff of the material.

Ans: C
Page: 2275
Type: General Knowledge

39

39. According to the military, which of the following practices can reduce the level of contamination of a person by as much as 80%?
A) Removing the patient's clothing
B) Using large pads to absorb the chemical
C) Using an agent to neutralize the chemical
D) Flushing with copious amounts of water

Ans: A
Page: 2275
Type: General Knowledge

40

40. Patients showing signs of pulmonary edema secondary to inhalation exposure to a corrosive chemical may need to be treated with:
A) glucagon.
B) a diuretic.
C) an inotrope.
D) sodium bicarbonate.

Ans: B
Page: 2277
Type: General Knowledge

41

41. Cyanide is a chemical asphyxiant, which means that it:
A) interferes with the utilization of oxygen at the cellular level.
B) impairs pulmonary respiration by causing pulmonary edema.
C) destroys red blood cells and prevents red blood cell production.
D) binds to hemoglobin and prevents oxygen transport to the cells.

Ans: A
Page: 2278
Type: General Knowledge

42

42. Prior to accepting a patient who has been decontaminated by the hazardous materials team, the paramedic must:
A) make contact with the receiving medical facility.
B) be informed about the degree of decontamination.
C) receive a verbal report about the material involved.
D) don the appropriate personal protective equipment.

Ans: D
Page: 2279
Type: General Knowledge

43

43. Medical monitoring and rehabilitation of rescuers at the scene of a hazardous materials incident should routinely include all of the following, EXCEPT:
A) assessment of the person's hydration status.
B) a complete set of vital signs and ECG monitoring.
C) prophylactic IV boluses of an isotonic crystalloid.
D) documentation of the hazardous material involved.

Ans: C
Page: 2279-2280
Type: General Knowledge

44

44. While en route to a motor vehicle accident, the dispatcher advises you that law enforcement is at the scene and is reporting that numerous bystanders are suddenly becoming ill. After receiving this information, you should:
A) ascertain approximately how many patients are involved.
B) keep a safe distance from the scene and view it with binoculars.
C) advise all law enforcement personnel to evacuate immediately.
D) alert area hospitals to prepare them to care for numerous patients.

Ans: B
Page: 2258-2259
Type: Critical Thinking

45

45. Following exposure to an industrial pesticide, a patient is responsive to pain only, is coughing up copious secretions, and has a heart rate of 40 beats/min. Priority treatment for this patient includes:
A) pralidoxime.
B) oral suctioning.
C) atropine sulfate.
D) tracheal intubation.

Ans: B
Page: 2278
Type: Critical Thinking

46

46. A commercial truck was involved in a wreck and is spilling anhydrous ammonia on the roadway. The incident commander has already established the hot, warm, and cold zones as dictated by the chemical involved. As one of the paramedics at the scene, you should anticipate that your role will MOST likely involve:
A) performing triage and treatment in the cold zone.
B) assisting with decontamination in the warm zone.
C) removing only critical patients from the hot zone.
D) evacuating residents who live near the incident.


Ans: A
Page: 2268
Type: Critical Thinking

47

47. While preparing to receive patients at the scene of a hazardous material spill, you see a middle-aged man approaching your ambulance. He is covered with a green liquid, is dyspneic, and states that he “barely got out of there alive!” You should:
A) advise the man to proceed back to the incident site so that he can be properly decontaminated.
B) quickly don standard precautions, assist the patient to the ambulance, and apply high-flow oxygen.
C) get close enough to the man so that you can visually triage him, and decontaminate him if he is stable.
D) tell him to stop immediately and inform the incident commander that the patient has not been decontaminated.

Ans: D
Page: 2275-2276
Type: Critical Thinking

48

48. You and another paramedic are transporting an unresponsive, apneic patient from a hazardous materials incident to the hospital. Because of his condition, he was only partially decontaminated at the scene. You will arrive at the hospital in approximately 10 minutes. The MOST appropriate treatment for this patient involves:
A) flushing the patient's entire body with copious amounts of water while your partner intubates him.
B) hyperventilating the patient with a bag-mask device and 100% oxygen at 20 breaths per minute.
C) avoiding intubation if possible, as this may expose the patient's airway to contamination.
D) establishing vascular access in case emergency drug therapy is required before you arrive at the hospital.

Ans: C
Page: 2277
Type: Critical Thinking

49

49. You are one of the paramedics staffing the rehabilitation section at a hazardous materials incident when a hazardous materials technician brings you one of his coworkers, whose mental status is altered. According to the technician, his coworker was appropriately decontaminated in the warm zone. The patient's skin is hot and moist, and he is confused and nauseated. You should:
A) administer oxygen via nasal cannula, take his blood pressure, and offer him cold water to drink.
B) administer oxygen, start an IV line, administer 2 L of cold normal saline rapidly, and prepare for transport.
C) first contact the incident commander and confirm that the patient has indeed been decontaminated.
D) suspect that he is suffering from heatstroke, administer high-flow oxygen, and begin rapid cooling measures.

Ans: D
Page: 2279-2280
Type: Critical Thinking

50

50. Following decontamination, a patient is presented to you by rescue personnel for transport. The patient is conscious and alert, and is in no obvious respiratory distress. The patient is emitting a pungent odor and has an orange chemical on his clothing. You should:
A) apply standard precautions and douse the patient with sterile water or saline.
B) isolate the patient by wrapping him with a plastic blanket and then transport.
C) document the time that you received the patient and begin your assessment.
D) advise the rescuers that the patient has not been adequately decontaminated.

Ans: D
Page: 2279
Type: Critical Thinking