Chapter 46 - Guyton Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 46 - Guyton Deck (37):
1

Mechanoreceptors

detect compression or stretching of tissues

2

Thermoreceptors

detect changes in temperature

3

Nociceptors

pain receptors, detect damage occurring in tissues

4

Electromagnetic receptors

detect light in the retina

5

Chemoreceptors

detect taste, smell, oxygen level in arterial blood, osmolality of body fluids, carbon dioxide concentration, other chemical factors

6

Differential sensitivity of receptors.

they are sensitive to one type of stimuli and not others (rods and cones to light but not heat/cold, pain only receptive to pressure once it is enough to cause damage)

7

What is the "labeled line" principle?

each nerve tract terminates at a specific point in the central nervous system, and the type of sensation felt when a nerve fiber is stimulated is determined by the point in the nervous system to which the fiber leads

8

What is the receptor potential?

type of stimulus that excites the receptor, its immediate effect is to change the membrane electrical potential of the receptor

9

Mechanisms of receptor potentials.

1) mechanical deformation of the receptors (stretching of the receptor membrane and ion channels open) 2) application of chemical to the membrane (ion channels open) 3) change of temperature (alters the permeability of the membrane) 4) electromagnetic radiation (changes the receptor membrane characteristics and allows ions to flow through channels)

10

Maximum amplitude of most sensory receptors.

100 mV

11

The more the receptor potential rises above threshold level, the greater the frequency of what?

action potentials

12

What allows sensory receptors to have an extreme range of response, from very weak to very intense?

frequency of repetitive action potentials
transmitted from sensory receptors increases approx. in proportion to the increase in receptor
potential; very intense stimulation of the receptor causes progressively less and less additional increase in numbers of action potentials

13

What is adaptation of sensory receptors?

adapt either partially or completely to any constant
stimulus after a period of time; pacinian corpuscle
adapts extremely rapidly and hair receptors adapt
within a second or so, whereas some joint capsule and muscle spindle receptors adapt slowly

14

How do mechanoreceptors adapt?

receptor potential occurs at onset of compression; accommodation (inactivation of Na channels as fiber gradually accommodates stimulus)

15

What are tonic receptors?

slowly adapting receptors that can transmit signal as long as stimulus is present; examples are muscle spindles, Golgi tendons, pain, baroreceptors, chemoreceptors of carotid and aortic bodies

16

Rapidly adapting receptors are also called?

rate, movement, or phasic receptors

17

If you haven't done so (because you are only reading the outlines), go to page 576 in the 11th edition and read the heading: Importance of the Rate Receptors—Their Predictive Function.

that's pretty cool.

18

Spatial summation.

increasing signal strength by using greater number of fibers

19

Temporal summation.

increasing the frequency of nerve impulses in each fiber

20

Type A nerve fibers

typical large and medium-sized myelinated fibers of spinal nerves (alpha, beta, gamma, delta)

21

Type C nerve fibers

small unmyelinated nerve fibers that conduct impulses at low velocities; constitute more than one half of the sensory fibers in most peripheral nerves as well as all the postganglionic autonomic fibers

22

Group Ia nerve fibers

Fibers from the annulospiral endings of muscle spindles, alpha A fibers

23

Group Ib nerve fibers

Fibers from the Golgi tendon organs, alpha A fibers

24

Group II nerve fibers

Fibers from most discrete cutaneous tactile receptors and from the flower-spray endings of the muscle spindles, beta and gamma A fibers

25

Group III nerve fibers

Fibers carrying temperature, crude touch, and pricking pain sensations, delta A fibers

26

Group IV nerve fibers

Unmyelinated fibers carrying pain, itch, temperature, and crude touch sensations, type C fibers

27

Two ways to increase sensation of pain?

spatial and temporal summation

28

Give an example of amplifying divergence?

type of divergence is characteristic of the corticospinal pathway in its control of skeletal muscles, with a single large pyramidal cell in the motor cortex capable, under highly facilitated conditions, of exciting as many as 10,000 muscle fibers

29

Give an example of divergence into multiple tracts?

information transmitted up the dorsal columns of the spinal cord takes two courses in the lower part of the brain: (1) into the cerebellum and 2) on through the lower regions of the brain to the
thalamus and cerebral cortex

30

The signals from the interneurons ______ on the anterior motor neurons to control muscle function.

converge (convergence can come from a single source or multiple sources)

31

Give an example of reciprocal inhibition.

at the same time that an excitatory signal is transmitted by one set of neurons in the spinal cord to cause forward movement of a leg, an inhibitory signal is transmitted through a separate set of neurons to inhibit the muscles on the back of the leg so that they will not oppose the forward movement

32

What is a reverberatory, or oscillatory,
circuit?

circuits are caused by positive feedback
within the neuronal circuit that feeds back to
re-excite the input of the same circuit. Consequently, once stimulated, the circuit may discharge repetitively for a long time.

33

Give an example of reverberating circuit in the body.

autonomic nervous system to control such functions as vascular tone, gut tone, degree of constriction of the iris in the eye, and heart rate

34

What occurs during epileptic seizures?

uncontrolled reverberating signals due to the areas of the brain being interconnected directly or indirectly

35

What are the two basic mechanisms that prevent reverberating signals in the brain?

inhibitory circuits and fatigue of synapses

36

Two types of inhibitory circuits in widespread areas of the brain help prevent excessive spread of signals:

inhibitory feedback circuits and neuronal pools that exert gross inhibitory control over widespread areas of the brain

37

What is synaptic fatigue?

synaptic transmission becomes progressively weaker the more prolonged and more intense the period of excitation