Chapter 66 - Guyton Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 66 - Guyton Deck (20):
1

Damage to which cranial nerves can result in paralysis of significant portions of the swallowing mechanism.

5th, 9th, 10th

2

Achalasia

condition in which the lower esophageal sphincter fails to relax during swallowing

3

These two substances are unique in that they can actually be absorbed by the stomach lining. They consequently are the most common cause of acute or chronic gastritis.

alcohol and aspirin

4

What is the gastric barrier?

gastric mucosa is lined with highly resistant mucous cells that secrete a viscid and adherent mucus and it has tight junctions between the adjacent epithelial cells

5

Achlorhydria

means simply that the stomach fails to secrete hydrochloric acid

6

Hypochlorhydria

diminished acid secretion

7

Common accompaniment of gastric atrophy and achlorhydria (no intrinsic factor secreted by parietal cells).

pernicious anemia

8

Causes of peptic ulcers:

1. High acid and peptic content
2. Irritation
3. Poor blood supply
4. Poor secretion of mucus
5. Infection, H. pylori

9

Most common treatments for gastric ulcers:

antibiotics and acid suppressant drug

10

Lack of pancreatic secretion frequently occurs:

pancreatitis, pancreatic duct is blocked by a gallstone at the papilla of Vater, head of the pancreas has been removed because of malignancy

11

Most common causes of pancreatitis:

excess alcohol intake, blockage of the papilla of Vater by a gallstone

12

Sprue

decreased absorption by the mucosa even though the food is well digested

13

Megacolon or Hirschsprung’s disease

tremendous quantities of fecal matter to accumulate in the colon, causing the colon sometimes to distend to a diameter of 3 to 4 inches (caused by lack of or deficiency of ganglion cells in the myenteric plexus in a segment of the sigmoid colon)

14

Enteritis

inflammation usually caused either by a virus or by bacteria in the intestinal tract

15

Ulcerative colitis

disease in which extensive areas of the walls of the large intestine become inflamed and ulcerated

16

antiperistalsis

peristalsis up the digestive tract rather than downward

17

Distention of this area is a particularly strong stimulus for vomiting.

duodenum. this chapter is also a strong stimulus.

18

How does rapidly changing direction induce vomiting?

receptors in the vestibular labyrinth of the inner ear-->cerebellum-->chemoreceptor trigger zone-->vomiting center

19

Persistent vomiting can induce whole-body alkalosis/acidosis.

alkalosis

20

Main gases in the large intestine (formed by bacteria---basically what are farts made of).

carbon dioxide, methane, and hydrogen