Chapter 5 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 5 Deck (27):
1

exocrine glands

release enzymes to the external environment through ducts- include sweat, oil, mucous and digestive glands

2

endocrine glands

release hormones directly into body fluids

3

receptors

hormones act by binding to proteins called _____

4

peptide hormones

derived from hormones, made in the rough ER then transferred to Golgi appartus where it is modified with carbohydrates to become its final form

5

effector

target cell of the hormone

6

how peptide hormones diffuse into the cell membrane of the effector

attach to a membrane bound receptor,

7

intracellular second messenger

cAMP, cGMP or calmodulin --> activates/deactivates enzymes and/or ion channels, cascade of chemical reactions

8

AP hormones

FSH, LH, ACTH, hGH, TSH, prolactin

9

PP hormones

ADH, oxytocin

10

Parathyroid hormones

PTH

11

Pancreatic hormones

glucagon, insulin

12

steroid hormones

derived from cholesterol, require a protein transport molecule to dissolve in the blood stream, diffuse through the cell membrane of the effector, combine with a receptor in the cytosol, receptor transports the steroid into the nucleus and the steroid acts at transcription level, formed in the smooth ER and in the mitochondria

13

steroid hormones list

cortisol, aldosterone, estrogen, progesterone, tesosterone

14

tyrosine derivative hormones list

T3 and T4, catecholamines (epinephrine and nrepinephrine)

15

tyrosine derivative hormones

formed by enzymes in the cytosols or on the rough ER, slowly released to their target tissues and bind to receptors inside the nucelus, latent period to their response, increase the durate of their effect

16

anterior pituitary and hypothalamus

hypothalamus controls the release of AP hormones

17

hGH

peiptide, growth in almost all cells in the body, increase cell size, protein sythesis, mobilizing fat sores, increasing use of FA for energy, decrease use of glucose, increase translation and transcription

18

ACTH

peptide, stimulate adernal cortex to release glucocorticoids via 2nd messenger system using cAMP, released is stimulated by many types of stress

19

TSH

stimulate release of T3 and T4 via second messenger system using cAMP, increases thyroid cell size, number and rate of secretion of T3 and T4; T3 and TA have negative feedback effect on TSH release

20

prolactin

promotes milk production, inhibts menstrual cycle, suckling stimulates hypothalamus to stimulate AP to release prolactin

21

oxytocin

increase uterine contractions during pregnancy and causes milk to be ejected from the breasts

22

ADH

aka vasopressin, causes collecting ducts of kidney to become permeable to water, reducing the amount of urine and concentrating urine, increases blood pressure, coffee and beer are ADH blockers

23

posterior pituitary

hormones are synthesized in the neural cell bodies of the hypothalamus

24

adernal cortex

mineral corticoids and glucocorticoids

25

mineral corticioids

effect electrolye balance in the blood stream

26

glucocortcoids

increase blood glucose concentration and have a greater effect on fat and protein metabloism

27

aldosterone

increase bp, increase Na and Cl reabsoportion and H and K secretion in the collecting duct