Chapter 7 Flashcards Preview

MCAT Biology > Chapter 7 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chapter 7 Deck (42):
1

Arteries

Elastic, wrapped in smooth muscle, narrow due to epinephrine, bigger ones are less affected by sympathetic innervation

2

Arterioles

Small, construction and dilation of arteriolar can be used to regulate blood pressure as well as rerouting blood

3

Capillaries

Microscopic blood vessels, cross wall by 1. Pinocytosis 2. Diffusion or transport through capillary cell membranes, movement thought pores In the cells called fenestrations, movement thought the space between the cells

4

Capillaries and pressure

Osmotic pressure remains constant but hydrostatic pressure drops from the arteriole end to the venule end. So at the venule end osmotic p>hydrostatic p and net fluid flood is into the capillary.

5

Veins and venues

Veins Contain a far greater volume of blood. And veins, venules and venous sinuses and the systemic circulation hold about 64% of the blood in a body at rest and act as a reservoir for blood . Arteries arterials and capillaries and systemic circulation contain about 20% of the blood

6

Cross-sectional area

Cross-sectional area of the veins it's about four times that of arteries the total cross-sectional area of the capillaries is far greater than the cross-sectional area of the veins or arteries

7

Blood speed

Since the blood volume flow rate is approximately constant the blood velocity is inversely proportional to the cross-sectional area. Therefore the blood is the slowest through the capillaries. The pumping force of the heart is a major contributor to pressure in the blood vessels to compensate for the lower pressures being have about system that prevents backflow of blood. The major propulsive force moving blood through the veins is the pumping force of the heart.

8

Blood pressure

Blood pressure increases near the heart and decreases to its lowest in the Capillaries

9

Air movement

Air enters through the nose moves through the pharynx larynx trachea bronchi bronchioles and into the alveoli were oxygen is exchanged for carbon dioxide with the blood

10

Inspiration

Inspiration occurs when the medulla oblongata of the midbrain signals the diaphragm to contract

11

Diaphragm

The diaphragm is skeletal muscle and innervated by the phrenic nerve. When relaxed the diaphragm is dome shaped. It flattens upon contraction spending the chest cavity and creating negative Gauge pressure. Upon relaxation of the diaphragm the chest cavity sinks and the elasticity of the lung along with the increased pressure in the chest cavity forces air out the body

12

Nasal cavity

The nasal cavity is the space inside the nose. it filters moistens and warms incoming air. Coarse hair at the front of the cavity traps large dust particles. Mucus secreted by the goblet cells traps smaller dust particles and moistens the air.

13

Cilia

Moves the mucus and Dust toward the pharynx so that it may be removed by spitting or swallowing

14

Pharynx

Functions as a passage way for food and air

15

Larynx

Voice box, sits behind the epiglottis which is cartilaginous member that prevents food from entering the trachea during swallowing. Wheeee no gaseous material enters the larynx a coughing reflex is triggered forcing the material back out. The larynx contains the vocal cords

16

Trachea

Lies in front of the the esophagus. It is composed of ringed Cartilage covered by ciliated mucous cells. Like the nasal cavity the cilia and mucus cells collect dust in usher it towards the pharynx.

17

Bronchi bronchioles and alveoli

Before entering the long trip to the right and branches many more times many tiny bronchioles. bronchioles terminate in grape like clusters called alveolar sacs composed of tiny alveoli. From each alveolus oxygen diffuses into a capillary where it is picked up by Red blood cells. Rbc release co2 which diffuses into the alveolus and is expelled upon exhalation

18

Partial p of oxygen and carbon dioxide

110 mm Hg and 40 mm Hg

19

Gas exchange

98%of the oxygen in the blood binds rapidly and reversibly with the protein hemoglobin inside the erythrocytes for me oxyhemoglobin

20

Plasma

Contains the matrix of the blood which includes water ions urea ammonia proteins and other organic and inorganic compounds

21

Albumin and Immunoglobulins

Transport fatty acids and steroids as well as acting to regulate the osmotic pressure of the blood;

22

No fibrinogen

Serum

23

Erythrocytes

bags of hemoglobin do not undergo under mitosis. Disk shaped vesicles whose main function is to transport oxygen and carbon dioxide. Plasma membranes wearout in about 120 days most worn-out RBCs burst as they squeeze through channels and the spleen or to a lesser extent in the liver

24

Leukocyte a

Organelles no hemoglobin

25

Stem cells

Precursor cell in bone marrow. Rbc lose nucleus in marrow, lose rest of their organelles within 1 or 2 days

26

Granulocytes

Live a short time

27

Monocytes -- macrophages

Live for months or years

28

Lymphocytes

Live for years

29

Platelets

Small portions of membrane-bound cytoplasm torn from megakaryocytes. Tiny cells without a nucleus. Contain actin and myosin residuals and the ER mitochondria capable making protaglandins and some important enzymes. Have a half-life of 8 to 12 days in the blood

30

Inmate immunity

Skin
Stomach acid and digestive enzymes
Phagocytotic cells
Chemicals in blood

31

Inflammation

Dilation about vessels increased permeability of capillaries swelling of tissue cells in migration of granulocytes and macrophages to the inflamed area

32

Infection

Macrophages eat 100 bacteria then neutrophils eat 5-20 bacteria. Then they die and along with tissue fluid and necrotic tissue male pus

33

Humoral/b cell immunity

B lymphocyte. Each one make an antibody (immunoglobulin). Antibody recognizes antigen. B lymphocyte recognizes antigen it becomes plasma cells and memory B cells. Plasma cells release free antibodies into cells. Recognize antigen and bind to it. Antibodies mark cell for phagocytosis by macrophages.

34

First exposure

Primary response. Takes 20 days

35

Secondary response

5 days

36

Humoral immunity etc

Works against bacteria, fungi, parasitic protozoans, viruses and blood toxins

37

Cell mediated immunity--t lymphocyte

T lymphocytes never make free antibodies in the finest T lymphocytes are tested against self antigens. if the T lymphocytes binds to a self antigen that T lymphocyte is destroyed. if it does not it is released to lodge in lymphoid tissue or circulate between the blood in the lymph tissue.

38

T lymphocytes cont

Not destroyed-- differentiate

39

Helper t

Assist in activating b lymphocytes as well as killer and suppressor T cells. Are attacked by HIV

40

Memory T cells

Similar to memory B cells

41

Suppressor T cells

Play negative feedback role in the immune system

42

Killer T cells

Bind to antigen carrying and release perforin (punctures the antigen carrying cell) can attack many cells because they don't phagocytize their victims. Help to fight forms of cancer and for attacking transplanted tissue.