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Flashcards in Chapter 5 Cognitive Development Deck (59):
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logical processes that allow for flexible thought

Mental Operations

1

the first stage of Piagets cognitive development lasting from birth-2

Sensorimotor Stage

2

the second stage of Piagets cognitive development from ages 2-7

Preoperational Stage

3

third stage of Piagets cognitive development from ages 7-11

Concrete Operational

4

the fourth stage of Piagets cognitive development from ages 12 and on during which people develop abstract thought independent of concrete objects

Formal Operational

5

proceeding from particular to particular in thought, without making generalizations

Transductive Reasoning

6

gathering individual items of information and putting them together to form hypotheses and conclusions

Inductive Reasoning

7

beginning with a hypothesis or premise and breaking it down to see if its true

Deductive Reasoning

8

the act of trying to link ideas

Syncretism

9

the preoperational belief that inanimate objects have humanlike porperties

Animism

10

the tendency of children to focus attention on one detail and their inability to shift attention to other aspects

Centering

11

the ability to divide objects into nested series of categories

Hierarchical Classification

12

understanding that objects can be fit into different levels of hierarchies

Class Inclusion Relationships

13

the ability to solve problems such as "Tom is taller than Fred, and Fred is taller than Marty. Is Tom taller than Marty?"

Transitive Inferences

14

the act of lining things up in order from large to small or small to large

Seriate

15

tests used by Piaget to determine whether children had mastered concrete operations, such as understanding that changing and object's appearance does not alter its fundamental properties

Conservation Problems

16

a way to solve problems using the scientific method; only one factor at a time is varied while all else is held constant

Hypothetico-Deductive Reasoning

17

insisting upon high standards of behavior

Idealistic

18

discrepancy between what people say and what they do

Hypocrisy

19

the tendency to approach problems at much too complex a level and to fail, not because the tasks are difficult, but because they are too simple

Pseudostupidity

20

the inability to take the perspective of another or to imagine the other persons point of view

Egocentricism

21

adolescent's belief that other are constantly paying attention to them

Imaginary Audience

22

adolescents belief that they are invulnerable and that their feeling are special and unique

Personal Fable

23

thinking about one's thoughts and feelings

Introspection

24

an advanced form of reasoning that allows one to create new and better insights by integrating conflicting data

Dialectics

25

an approach to studying cognition that focuses on the perception, attention, retrieval, and manipulation of information

Information-Processing Approach

26

the process by which information is received and transduced by the senses, usually in a fraction of a second

Sensory Storage

27

the process by which information is still in the conscious mind, being rehearsed and focused on (also called primary memory)

Short-Term Storage

28

the process by which information is perceived and processed deeply so it passes into the layers of memory below the conscious level (also called secondary memory)

Long-Term Storage

29

the pace at which the brain perceives and manipulates information

Processing Speed

30

to develop new thoughts from old information

Inference

31

the conscious, deliberate manipulation of information

Thinking

32

a strategy used to disprove

Negation

33

a strategy used to confirm

Affirmation

34

looking for evidence that disproves a hypothesis

Elimination Strategy

35

looking for examples that match a hypothesis

Confirmation Strategy

36

looking at the world in a way that favors one's own opinion

Self-Serving Bias

37

logical, constrained, useful thinking

Reasoning

38

abstract, theoretical guidelines

Principles

39

the ability to think about one's own thought process

Metacognition

40

the ability to monitor and direct one's thoughts

Executive Control

41

rules of thumb, general strategies or principles

Heuristics

42

a theory of decision making that says that adolescents can logically and analytically make choices, but that they often rely upon intuition and short-term benefits instead

Dual Process Theory

43

one's belief about knowledge

Epistemology

44

believing that there are absolutes, universal truths; creates difficulty in distinguishing fact from opinion

Naive Realists

45

believing that there are absolute and universal truths but people are biased; differentiates from fact and opinion

Defensive Realists

46

those who cling rigidly to one belief

Dogmatists

47

those who resist rationality

Skeptics

48

the belief that truth is constructed but that some beliefs are more valid than others

Post-Skeptical Rationalism

49

the largest part of the human brain

Cerebrum

50

the cerebral lobe that is the center for solving problems involving spatial relationships

Parietal Lobe

51

the cerebral lobe that is the center for higher-order thought processes, such as planning and impulse control

Frontal Lobe

52

the cerebral lobe that is the center for producing and understanding language

Temporal Lobe

53

the part of the brain involved with learning, memory, and motivation

Hippocampus

54

the part of the brain that creates primitive emotional responses to the environment

Amygdala

55

an approach to cognitive development that focuses on the measurement of knowledge and thinking ability

Psychometric Approach

56

calculated by dividing the mental age (MA) by the chronological age (CA) and multiplying by 100

Intelligence Quotient (IQ)

57

tests designed to assess mastery of specific subject matter or skills

Achievement Tests

58

the ability to identify plants and animals

Naturalistic Intelligence