Chapter 5 - Lungs Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 5 - Lungs Deck (16)
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Anterior border of lung

-Thin and short
-On right, corresponds to costomediastinal line
-On left, shows cardiac notch below level of 4th costal cartilage


Posterior border of lung

-Corresponds to medial margins of heads of ribs
-Extends from C7-T10


Inferior border of lung

-Separates base from costal and mediastinal surfaces


Medial surface of lung

-Vertebral and mediastinal part
-Vertebral relations: Vertebral body, intervertebral discs, splanchnic N, posterior intercostal vessels
-Mediastinal relations: Mediastinal septum, cardiac impression, hilum


Fissures of right lung

1. Horizontal
-From anterior border
-Runs at level of 4th costal cartilage
-Joins oblique fissure in midaxillary line

2. Oblique
-Runs downwards and forwards
-Makes lower lobe more posterior and upper and middle lobes more anterior.


Define root of lung

-A short, broad pedicle that connects medial surface of lung to mediastinum.
-Formed by structures going in and coming out of the lung.
-Lie opposite T5, T6, T7.


Contents of root of lung

1. L-Principal bronchus; R-Eparterial, hyperarterial bronchus
2. 1 Pulmonary A
3. 2 Pulmonary V- superior, inferior
4. Bronchial A- R-1, L-2
5. Bronchial V
6. Anterior, posterior pulmonary plexus
7. Lymphatics
8. Bronchopulmonary lymph nodes
9. Areolar tissue


Arrangement of structures in root of lung

Posterior to anterior
1. Eparterial/hyperarterial/principal bronchus, bronchial vessels, posterior pulmonary plexus
2. Pulmonary A
3. Superior, inferior pulmonary V
4. Anterior pulmonary plexus, lymph nodes and vessels


Relations of root of lung

Common: Phrenic N, Musculophrenic A, Anterior pulmonary plexus
Right: Superior vena cava, Right atrium

Common: Vagus N, Posterior pulmonary plexus
Left: Descending thoracic aorta

Right: Azygos V
Left: Arch of aorta

Pulmonary ligament


Blood supply of lungs

1. Right bronchial artery from 3rd right posterior intercostal artery
2. Left bronchial arteries from descending thoracic aorta
3. Right bronchial vein empties into azygos vein
4. Left bronchial vein empties into hemiazygos vein


Lymphatic drainage of lungs

-Bronchopulmonary lymph nodes
-Superficial vessels drain peripheral lung tissue and have many valves
-Deep vessels drain bronchial tree, connective tissue septa and have no valves


Paraympathetic nerve supply of lungs

From vagus
-Motor fibres to bronchial muscles: cause bronchospasm
-Secretomotor fibres to mucous glands
-Sensory fibres: for stretch and cough reflex


Sympathetic nerve supply of lungs

-2-5th sympathetic ganglia


Features of bronchopulmonary segments

1. Well defined anatomical, functional, surgical segments
2. Each aerated by tertiary/segmental bronchus
3. Pyramidal with apex towards root and base towards periphery
4. Each has segmental bronchus, segmental A, autonomic N, lymph vessels
5. Segmental venules lie in connective tissue betwwen segments
6. During infection of segment, it is usually restricted to segment.


Bronchial asthma

-bronchospasm of smooth muscles in wall of bronchioles
-difficulty during expiration
-accompanied by wheezing
-Rx: Epinephrina, sympathomimetic drug


Ausculation of lung

Upper lobe: Above 4th rib on both sides
Lower lobe: Back
Middle lobe: Between 4th-6th ribs on right