Chapter 6 - Mediastinum Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 6 - Mediastinum Deck (9)
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Boundaries of superior mediastinum

A: Manubrium
P: T1-T4
S: Thoracic inlet
I: Imaginary plane through sternal angle and lower border of T4
Side: Mediatinal pleura


Contents of superior mediastinum

1. Trachea
2. Oesophagus
3. Sternothyroid, sternohyoid, longus colli
4. Arch of aorta
Brachiocephalic A
Left common carotid A
Left subclavian A
5. R, L brachiocephalic V
Superior vena cava
Left superior intercostal V
6. Vagus N
Phrenic N
Cardiac N
Left recurrent laryngeal N
7. Thymus
8. Thoracic duct
9. Lymph nodes


Boundaries of anterior mdiastinum

A: Sternum
P: Pericardium
S: Imaginary plane through sternal angle and lower border of T4
I: Diaphragm
Sides: Mediastinal pleura


Contents of anterior mediastinum

1. Sternopericardial ligaments
2. Lymph nodes
3. Mediastinal branches of internal thoracic A
4. Thymus
5. Areolar tissue


Boundaries of middle mediastinum

A: Sternopericardial ligaments
P: Oesophagus, Descending aorta, Azygos V
Sides: Mediastinal pleura


Contents of middle mediastinum

1. Heart
2. Ascending aorta
Pulmonary trunk
2 pulmonary A
3. Superior vena cava
Azygos V
Left pulmonary V
4. Phrenic N
Deep cardiac plexus
5. Tracheobronchal lymph nodes
6. Bifurcation of trachea


Boundaries of posterior mediastinum

A: Pericardium bifurcation of trachea, pulmonary vessels
P: T5-T12
Sides: Mediastinal pleura


Contents of posterior mediastinum

1. Oesophagus
2. Descending thoracic aorta
3. Azygos, hemiazygos, accessory hemiazygos V
4. Vagus, splanchnic N
5. Thoracic duct


Mediastinal syndrome

-Caused by compression of mediastinal structures by tumor
-Ex: Bronchiogenic carcinoma, Hodgkin's disease, aneurysm.

1. Obstruction of superior vena cava causes enlarged veins
2. Pressure over trachea: dyspnoea
3. P/O oesophagus: dysphagia
4. P/O left recurrent laryngeal N: hoarse voice
5. P/O phrenic N: paralysis of diaphragm
6. P/O intercostal N: intercostal neuralgia
7. P/O vertebral column: erosion of vertebral bodies