Flashcards in Chapter 1 - Introduction Deck (14)
Boundaries of thoracic cage
Posteriorly: Thoracic vertebrae
Each side: 12 ribs
Describe the thoracic cage in children
-In children, the chest wall is highly elastic.
-Fractures are therefore rare.
-Fractures occur mostly due to violence.
-Weakest point is at the angle.
-Upper two ribs are protected by clavicle and floating ribs are least commonly injured.
-Due to spasmodic contractions of diaphragm accompanied by closed glottis.
-Stimulated by gastric irritation.
-May also be due to phrenic nerve irritation, uraemia or hysteria.
Boundaries of inlet of thorax
Anteriorly: Manubrium sterni
Posteriorly: Body of T1
Each side: 1st rib
The plane of the inlet is directed forwards and downwards at an angle of 45.
2.Partially separates thorax from neck
4.Apex: transverse process of C7
5.Base: inner border of 1st rib.
6.Flattened tendon of scalenus minimus
7.Inferior surface: Fused to cervical pleura
8.Superior surface: related to subclavian vessels
9.Provides rigidity to thoracic inlet so that root of neck is not puffed during respiration.
Structures passing through thoracic inlet
3. Brachiocephalic A
4. Left common carotid and left subclavian A
5. RL brachiocephalic V
6. Internal thoracic A
7. Superior intercoastal A
8. Posterior intercoastal V
9. Inferior thyroid V
10. Phrenic N
11. Vagus N
12. Sympathetic trunk
!3. Sternothyroid, Sternohyoid, Longus colli
Boundaries of outlet of thorax
Anteriorly: Infrasternal angle between coastal margins
Sides: Cartilages of 7th-12th ribs
3 large openings in diaphragm
1. Vena caval
Vena caval opening
1. Inferior vena cava
2. Right phrenic nerve
3. Lymphatic of liver
2. Vagal trunks
3. Left gastric vessels
2. Thoracic duct
3. Azygos vein
Small openings of diaphragm
1. Superior gastric A through space of Larrey
2. Musculophrenic A
3. Greater and lesser splanchnic N
4. Left phrenic N pierces left cupola
space of Larrey
Between slip of xiphoid process and 7th coastal cartilage slip of diaphragm