Chapter 4 - Thoracic Cavity and Pleurae Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 4 - Thoracic Cavity and Pleurae Deck (14)
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Visceral pleura

-Pulmonary pleura
-Develops from splanchnopleuric mesoderm
-covers surface and fissures of lung
-continuous with parietal pleura at hilum and pulmonary ligament


Parietal pleura

- Somatopleuric mesoderm
1. Costal pleura: Lines thoracic wall, ribs and intercostal spaces. Attached by areolar tissue called endothoracic fascia
2. Medistinal pleura: Lines medistinal surface
3. Cervical pleura: Extends above clavicle and covers apex of lung.
4. Diaphragmatic pleura: Lines superior part of diaphragm and covers base of lung.


Pulmonary ligament

-Parietal pleura surrounding root of lung extends downwards as a fold - pulmonary ligament
-Contains loose areolar tissue, lymphatics
-Provides dead space for pulmonary veins to expand


Costomediastinal recess

-Lies anteriorly
-Between costal and mediastinal pleurae
-Filled up by anterior margin of lungs during breathing


Costodiaphragmatic recess

-Between costal and diaphragmatic pleurae
-Extends from 8th-10th ribs along midaxillary line


Blood supply, Nerve supply and Lymphatics of visceral pleura

-Bronchial vessels

-Sympathetic- T2-T5 ganglia
-Parasympathetic- Vagus

--Bronchopulmonary lymph nodes


Blood supply and Lymphatics of parietal pleura

-Intercostal, internal thoracic, musculophrenic A
-Azygos, internal thoracic V
-Intercostal, internal mammary, posterior mediastinal, diaphragmatic lymph nodes


Nerve supply of parietal pleura

-Costal + peripheral part of diaphagmatic pleura: Intercostal N
-Medistinal + central part of diaphragmatic pleura: Phrenic N


Paracentesis thoracis

-Aspiration of fluid from thoracic cavity
-8th intercostal space
-needle passed through lower part of space to avoid injury to VAN



-Inflammation of pleura
-May be dry/ fluid may collect in cavity
-Dry pleurisy is more painful as both layers come into contact during inspiration causing friction


Pneumothorax, Haemothorax, Hydropneumothorax, Empyema

Pneumo- air in pleural cavity
Haemo- blood in cavity
Hydropneumo- fluid and air in cavity
Empyema- pus in cavity


Pain from costal and peripheral diaphragmatic pleura is reffered to

Thoracic/Abdominal walls through intercostal N


Pain from mediastinal and central diaphragmatic pleura is reffered to

Tip of shoulders through phrenic N


Pleura extends beyond thoracic cage in which areas?

1. Right xiphicostal angle
2. Right and left costovertebral angle
3. Root of neck as cervical pleura