Chapter 5: Medical Terminology Flashcards Preview

Emergency Care and Transportation of the Sick and Injured, 12th Edition > Chapter 5: Medical Terminology > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chapter 5: Medical Terminology Deck (34)
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1
Q

What are the components of a medical term?

A

Word Root - The foundation of the word
Prefix - What Occurs before the Word Root
Suffix - What occurs after the word root
Combining vowel - a vowel that joins one or more word roots to other components or terms

1
Q

Thinking in terms of the pre-root-suffix structure, break down Cardiopulmonary resuscitation

A

cardio - root word meaning heart
pulmon - root word meaning lungs

By performing cardiopulmonary resuscitation you are introducing air into the lungs and circulating blood by compressing the heart to resuscitate the patient.

2
Q

What does a medical prefix usually describe?

A

Found at the beginning of a word a prefix generally describes location and intensity and give the root word a specific meaning.

EX. pnea - root word for breathing
a/pnea - without breathing
brady/pnea - slow breathing
tachy/pnea - fast breathing

3
Q

What is a word root and what does it mean in medical terminology?

A

The main part of a word the word root (or root word) conveys the essential meaning of a word and frequently indicates a body part, organ or organ system. Adding a prefix or suffix creates a term and changing the prefix or suffix will change the meaning of the term.

EX. pnea - root word for breathing
a/pnea - without breathing
brady/pnea - slow breathing
tachy/pnea - fast breathing

4
Q

What does a medical suffix usually describe?

A

Suffixes appear at the end of words and usually indicate a procedure, condition, disease or part of speech.

EX.
-itis - inflamation
arthro - joint
arthr/itis - inflamation of the joints

5
Q

What is a combining vowel in medical terminology?

A

A combining vowel is the part of a term that connects a word root to a suffix or another root word. Usually used when joining a suffix that begins with a consonant or when joining another word root. The combining vowel often helps ease the pronunciation of a term.

EX.
gastr/o + enter/o + logy
Stomach + small intestines + the study of

The combining vowel is used twice (“o”), without which the word becomes a mouthful - gasterenterlogy

6
Q

What are the word building rules?

A
  • The prefix is always at the beginning of a term; however, not all terms will have a prefix.
  • The suffix is always at the end of the term.
  • When a suffix begins with a consonant, a combining vowel is used between the word root and suffix to make pronunciation easier.
  • When a term has more than one word root, a combining vowel must be placed between the two word roots, even if the second root begins with a vowel.
7
Q

When combining words into a medical term, where do you place a combining vowel?

A
  • When a suffix begins with a consonant, a combining vowel is used between the word root and suffix to make pronunciation easier.
  • When a term has more than one word root, a combining vowel must be placed between the two word roots, even if the second root begins with a vowel.
8
Q

What are the rules regarding plural endings in medical terminology?

A
  • Singular words that end in a change to ae when plural.
    Example: vertebra becomes vertebrae.
  • Singular words that end in is change to es when plural.
    Example: diagnosis becomes diagnoses.
  • Singular words that end in ex or ix change to ices.
    Example: apex becomes apices.
  • Singular words that end in on or um change to a.
    Examples: ganglion becomes ganglia, ovum becomes ova.
  • Singular words that end in us change to i.
    Example: bronchus becomes bronchi.
9
Q

When pluralizing vertebra what rule are we following?

A
  • Singular words that end in a change to ae when plural.
    Example: vertebra becomes vertebrae.
10
Q

When pluralizing diagnosis what rule are we following?

A
  • Singular words that end in is change to es when plural.
    Example: diagnosis becomes diagnoses.
11
Q

When pluralizing apex what rule are we following?

A
  • Singular words that end in ex or ix change to ices.
    Example: apex becomes apices
12
Q

When pluralizing ganglion what rule are we following?

A
  • Singular words that end in on or um change to a.
    Examples: ganglion becomes ganglia, ovum becomes ova.
13
Q

When pluralizing bronchus what rule are we following?

A
  • Singular words that end in us change to i.
    Example: bronchus becomes bronchi.
14
Q

What is the directional term associated with the front and back?

A

Anterior (ventral) - The front surface of the body
Posterior (dorsal) - The back surface of the body

15
Q

What are the directional terms associated with Top and Bottom?

A

Superior - Closest to the head
Inferior - Closest to the feet

16
Q

What are the directional terms associated with Closest and Farthest?

A

Proximal - Closest to the point of attachment
Distal - Farthest from the point of attachment

17
Q

What are the directional terms associated with Middle and Side?

A

Medial - Closest to the midline
Lateral - Farthest from the midline

18
Q

What are the directions terms associated with In and Out?

A

Deep - Farthest from the surface of the skin
Superficial - Closest to the surface of the skin

19
Q

Define Flexion

A

Flexion is decreasing the angle of the joint

20
Q

Define Extension

A

Extension is increasing the angle of the joint

21
Q

What is an Apex?

A

The tip of a structure. For example, the Apex of the heart is the bottom (inferior portion) of the ventricles in the left side of the chest

22
Q

Define Adduction?

A

Adduction is motion towards the midline

23
Q

Define Abduction?

A

Abduction is motion away from the midline

24
Q

A body part that appears on both sides of the mid-line is _______?

A

bilateral

A body part or condition that appears on both sides of the mid-line is bilateral. The lungs and kidneys are bilateral.

25
Q

What does it mean to Palpate?

A

Palpate - exam by touch

26
Q

When a patient is lying face down they are described as being _____.

A

Prone

27
Q

When a patient is lying face up they are described as being ____.

A

Supine

28
Q

A patient sitting up is described as being in the ________.

A

Fowler position

29
Q

Break this word down: nephropathy

Show your work.

A
  • nephr/o/pathy
  • Start with the suffix: pathy - Suffix meaning disease
  • work backwords: o - combining vowel
  • nephr - word root meaning kidney

nephropathy - disease of the kidney

30
Q

Break this word down: hyperemesis

Show your work

A
  • hyper/emesis
  • since the is no suffix, start with the prefix: hyper - “excessive”
  • emesis - word root mean “vomiting”

hyperemesis - excessive vomiting

31
Q

When encountering a word you don’t know explain how the steps to breaking it down.

A

When trying to define a term, begin with the suffix and work backwards.

If the term also contains a prefix, define the suffix, then the prefix, and then the word root.

32
Q

Define proximal

A

Proximal - closer to the trunk

33
Q

What do we mean when we say quadrants?

A

Quadrants - Describes the sections of the abdominal cavity, in which two imaginary lines intersect at the umbilicus, dividing the abdomen into four equal areas.