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1

Whenever electromagnetic radiation encounters matter one of three things can happen.

reflection

transmission

absorption

2

reflection

3

transmission

4

absorption

5

Reflection:

All electromagnetic reflections are governed by the same

physical laws as reflections of visible light

6

Optics describes

describes the general laws of reflection

7

Optics describes the general laws of reflection and may be applied to

Øall types of electromagnetic reflections ranging from radio waves to gamma rays.

8

Transmission:

The electromagnetic radiation may be transmitted

•completely through the substance it encounters.

9

If absolutely no energy is absorbed by the material, it is said to be

•transparent to the radiation.

10

The velocity of the radiation is usually ..................... in the transparent medium

slower

11

The velocity of the radiation is usually slower in the transparent medium and as a result the radiation usually

 undergoes refraction

12

Various materials are transparent at various wavelengths. For example, lead glass is transparent to ............... but not .....................

visible light but not X-rays

13

several thicknesses of black paper sheets are transparent to ........................ but not ................

•X-rays, but not visible light.

14

.................................. is perfectly transparent.

No known material

15

Absorption:

The electromagnetic radiation may be

•totally or partially absorbed by the substance.

16

The electromagnetic radiation may be totally or partially absorbed by the substance.

In this process energy is

transferred to the absorbing medium

17

In this process energy is transferred to the absorbing medium and this may cause

significant changes to occur within the absorbing medium

18

Electromagnetic radiation

•is a form of energy whose behavior is described by the properties of both waves and particles.

19

•Some properties of electromagnetic radiation, such as its ....................... when it passes from one medium to another, are explained best by ........................

refraction

describing light as a wave.

20

Other properties, such as absorption and emission, are better described by

light as a particle.

21

The exact nature of electromagnetic radiation

remains unclear

22

The exact nature of electromagnetic radiation remains unclear, as it has since the

•development of quantum mechanics in the first quarter of the 20th century.

23

...................................provide a useful description for electromagnetic radiation.

the dual models of wave and particle behavior

24

Electromagnetic radiation consists of

oscillating electric and magnetic fields

25

Electromagnetic radiation consists of oscillating electric and magnetic fields that

•that propagate through space along a linear path and with a constant velocity.

26

In a vacuum electromagnetic radiation travels at

•at the speed of light, c, which is 2.997 92 × 108 m/s.

27

When electromagnetic radiation moves through a medium other than a vacuum its velocity, v, is

•less than the speed of light in a vacuum.

28

The oscillations in the electric and magnetic fields are.....................to each other

perpendicular

29

The oscillations in the electric and magnetic fields are perpendicular to each other, and to the direction of the

wave’s propagation.

30

A

magnetic field