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Describe remote sensing

  • The art and science of obtaining information about an object without physically contact between the object and sensor
  • The processes of collecting information about Earth surfaces and phenomena using sensors not in physical contact with the surfaces and phenomena of interest.


Remote sensing:

there is a 

medium of transmission involved example: earth's atmosphere 


steps of remote sensing

  1. The mission plan and choice of sensors
  2. The reception, recording, and processing of the signal data
  3. The analysis of the resultant data.​


Remote sensing process components

Energy Source or Illumination (A)

Radiation and the Atmosphere (B)

Interaction with the Target (C)

Recording of Energy by the Sensor (D)

Transmission, Reception, and Processing (E)

Interpretation and Analysis (F)

Application (G)


Type of resolution:

  1. Spatial
  2. Spectral
  3. Temporal
  4. Radiometric


Describe Spatial resolution

a term that refers to the number of pixels utilized in construction of a digital image. Images having higher spatial resolution are composed with a greater number of pixels than those of lower spatial resolution.



Describe Spectral resolution

  • Is the ability to resolve spectral features and bands into their separate components
  • More number of bands in a specified bandwidth means higher spectral resolution and vice versa
    • panchromatic - 1 band (B&W)
    • Color - 3 bands (RGB)
    • Multispectral - 4+ bands (e.g. RGBNIR)
    • Hyperspectral - hundreds of bands


Describe temporal resolution

  • Refers to the precision of a measurement with respect to time
  • Frequency at which images are recorded/ captured in a specific place on the earth.
  • The more frequently it is captured, the better or finer the temporal resolution is said to be


Describe radiometric resolution

  • Sensitivity of the sensor to the magnitude of the received electromagnetic energy determines the radiometric resolution
  • Finer the radiometric resolution of a sensor, if it is more sensitive in detecting small differences in reflected or emitted energy​


Types of Remote Sensing

  • Aerial photography
  • Multispectral
  • Active and Passive Microwave and LIDAR


Electromagnetic spectrum