Electromagnetic radiation in the atmosphere interacts with
gases, aerosol particles, and cloud particles.
Extinction and emission are two main types of
the interactions between an electromagnetic radiation field and a medium (e.g., the atmosphere).
a process that decreases the radiative intensity, while emission increases it.
extinction also means
Radiation is ....................... by ......................................................................................
all bodies that have a temperature above absolute zero (O K) (often referred to as thermal emission).
Extinction is due to
absorption and scattering.
a process that removes the radiative energy from an electromagnetic field and transfers it to other forms of energy.
a process that does not remove energy from the radiation field, but may redirect it.
Scattering can be thought of as ............................of ....................................................
radiative energy followed by re- emission back to the electromagnetic field with negligible conversion of energy
Scattering can be thought of as absorption of radiative energy followed by re- emission back to the electromagnetic field with negligible conversion of energy. Thus,
scattering can remove radiative energy of a light beam traveling in one direction, but can be a “source” of radiative energy for the light beams traveling in other directions.
what is the difference between elastic and inelastic scattering
Elastic scattering is the case when the scattered radiation has the same frequency as that of the incident field. Inelastic (Raman) scattering results in scattered light with a frequency different from that of the incident light.
a body whose absorbs all radiation incident upon it.
Properties of blackbody radiation:
- Radiation emitted by a blackbody is isotropic, homogeneous and unpolarized;
- Blackbody radiation at a given wavelength depends only on the temperature;
- Any two blackbodies at the same temperature emit precisely the same radiation;
- A blackbody emits more radiation than any other type of an object at the same temperature;
The atmosphere is not strictly in the thermodynamic equilibrium because
its temperature and pressure are functions of position. Therefore, it is usually subdivided into small subsystems each of which is effectively isothermal and isobaric referred to as Local Thermodynamical Equilibrium (LTE).
A concept of LTE plays a fundamental role in
atmospheric studies: e.g., the main radiation laws discussed below, which are strictly speaking valid in thermodynamical equilibrium, can be applied to an atmospheric air parcel in LTE.
Planck function definition
Bλ(T), gives the intensity (or radiance) emitted by a blackbody having a given temperature.
Plank function can be expressed in
wavelength, frequency, or wavenumber domains
Plank function can be expressed in wavelength, frequency, or wavenumber domains as
what does each symbol mean
The relations between Bv~ (T ); Bv (T ) and Bλ(T ) are derived using that
Explain the graph
the graph shows plancks radiance "emissivity" and wavelength
when temperature of the object is low wavelength is larger and radiance is low
The Stefan-Boltzmann law states that
the radiative flux emitted by a blackbody, per unit surface area of the blackbody, varies as the fourth power of the temperature.
Stefan-Boltzmann law formula
explain the terms in Stefan-Boltzmann law
Wien’s displacement law
states that the wavelength at which the blackbody
emission spectrum is most intense varies inversely with the blackbody’s temperature.
The Wien’s displacement law states that the wavelength at which the blackbody
emission spectrum is most intense varies inversely with the blackbody’s temperature. The
constant of proportionality is
Wien’s constant(2897 K µm):
λm= 2897 / T
Explain the terms of weins displacement law
where λm is the wavelength (in micrometers, µm) at which the peak emission intensity
occurs, and T is the temperature of the blackbody (in degrees Kelvin, K)
Wein's displacement law is simply derived from
Wien's displacement law (easy to remember statement)
The hotter the object the shorter the wavelength of the maximum intensity emitted
states that the emissivity ελ, of a medium is equal to the
absorptivity, Αλ, of this medium under thermodynamic equilibrium