Chapter 5: Socio-cultural Influences Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 5: Socio-cultural Influences Deck (60)
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1

Describe two different ways parents could help to improve a sportsperson’s performance. (4 marks)

[AO1 = 2 AO2 = 2]

Award one mark for each of the following points up to a maximum of four marks.

•   (AO1) Encouraging a sportsperson to attend more training sessions (1)

•   (AO2) To improve fitness level (1)

•   (AO1) Training alongside a sportsperson

•   (AO2) To motivate them to continue until the end of their training sessions

•   (AO1) Providing transport to training (1)

•   (AO2) Increase the number of training sessions a sportsperson can take part in (1)

•   (AO1) Providing finance for specialist equipment or clothing or footwear or coaching (1)

•   (AO1) To improve efficiency and speed of their running (1)

•   (AO1) Providing a healthy diet (1)

•   (AO2) Which would provide them with the energy to run faster (1)

Accept any other suitable response.

[4]

2

People are individuals with different needs.

Explain how culture may affect an individual’s participation in physical activity. (2 marks)

[AO1 = 2]

Award one mark for each of the following points up to a maximum of two marks

Kit

•   Some religions do not allow women to wear certain items of sports kit (1)

•   This may prevent participation in certain physical activities e.g. swimming (1)

Role

•   Some countries see a woman’s role as in the home (1)

•   This may limit their leisure time (1)

Traditions

•   The traditions of a particular country or region or religion (1)

•   May increase participation in physical activity or sport e.g. cricket in India or curling in Scotland (1)

Accept any other suitable response.

[2]

3

What is meant by a ‘role model’? (2 marks)

[AO1 = 2]

Award one mark for each of the following points up to a maximum of two marks

•   A role model is somebody who other people aspire to, or are motivated or inspired to be like (1)

•   Who they look up to or idolise (1)

•   Who sets an example for others to follow (1)

Accept any other suitable response.

2

4

Explain how a role model could have had an effect on a gymnast's level of
participation or performance. (4 marks)

[AO2 = 4]

Award one mark for each of the following points up to a maximum of four marks

Participation

•   By watching the role model perform the gymnast is more motivated or inspired (1)

•   To train more or compete in more competition (1)

•   May take up the sport (1)

Performance

•   Role model’s success may have encouraged the gymnast to train harder (1)

•   To achieve a similar standard (1)

•   Because they enjoyed watching their performance may have copied their technique (1)

Accept any other suitable response.

4

5

Name two social groups and explain how they may influence a young person’s decision to participate in physical activity. (4 marks)

[AO1 = 2 AO2 = 2]

Award one mark for each of the following points up to a maximum of four marks

AO1 (Sub-max 2 marks)

• Peer group or friends (1)

• Family (1)

• Gender (1)

• Ethnicity (1)

AO2 (Sub-max 2 marks)

•   (Peer group or friends) − If friends take part in an activity it is likely that you will as well to maintain contact with them or to share a common interest (1)

•   (Family) − Will encourage participation due to the support they offer either financially in the form of equipment, coaching or by providing transport or moral support (1)

•   (Family) − May also be role models in that children follow other family members into the sports that they do (1)

•   (Gender) − Some activities are stereotypically male or female (or equivalent ‘girls play netball’) (1)

•   (Ethnicity) − Due to cultural or religious beliefs, some people are stereotypically drawn towards certain activities (1)

Accept any other suitable response.

[4]

6

Explain, using an example, how a role model could help to improve the level of performance in a sport or activity. (3 marks)

Award up to three marks for a correct response. Award one mark for the
example of the role model improving performance and up to two more
marks for the explained example.

Examples include:

• a top level rugby player such as Jonny Wilkinson / can demonstrate
good skills within a game / these can be observed or even recorded/
and a performer can copy them

Accept the above plus any other suitable examples.

3

7

Explain, using an example, how a role model could help to improve the level of participation in a sport or activity. (3 marks)

Award up to three marks for a correct response. Award one mark for the
example of the role model improving participation and up to two more
marks for the explained example.

Examples include:

• a top level soccer player such as Wayne Rooney / can be playing
a game at a top level / the rewards in terms of financial gain etc./
would encourage other people to take part as well

Accept the above plus any other suitable examples.

3

8

Explain, using an example, how a family could have a positive influence and help to increase participation. (2 marks)

Award two marks for a correct response. Award one mark for identifying
how family can influence to increase the level of participation and one
further mark for a suitable example of this taking place.

Examples include:

• a family member such as a parent could help with transport / this
would enable you to get to sporting events, training etc.

• a family member could provide financial help / this would enable
you to pay for equipment, training etc

Accept the above plus any other suitable examples.

2

9

Explain, using a different example, how a family could have a negative influence and cause a decrease in participation. (2 marks)

Award two marks for a correct response. Award one mark for identifying
how family can influence to decrease the level of participation and one
further mark for a suitable example of this taking place.

Examples include:

• a family member such as a parent could be reluctant to provide
PE kit or equipment / this would make it difficult for a child to
participate

• a family member may have had a poor experience in PE when they
were at school / this might lead to them discouraging them from
participating fully

Accept the above plus any other suitable examples.

2

10

Define commercialisation. (1)

[AO1 = 1]

(a) Award one mark for each of the following points up to a maximum of one mark.

•   To manage or exploit (an organisation / activity) in a way designed to make a profit / introducing new products to the market to make a profit (1)

•   Sponsorship and the media (1)

Accept any other suitable definition of commercialisation.

Max 1 mark

11

Evaluate the role of the media in the relationship between sport, sponsorship and the media. (2 marks)

[AO3 = 2]

(b) Award one mark for each of the following points up to a maximum of two marks.

•   The media attracts businesses / sponsors who want to promote their merchandise (1)

•   Because the sport / spectators are interested in the media to watch the sport (1)

•   Media can rely on subscription payments from the spectators (1)

•   Sport spectators may buy merchandise via media / advertising (1)

Accept any other suitable evaluative point around the importance of the media in the relationship between sport, sponsorship and the media.

Max 2 marks

12

State three types of sponsorship an individual may receive. (3 marks)

[AO1 = 3]

Award one mark for each of the following points up to a maximum of three marks.

• Clothing / footwear (1)

• Equipment (1)

• Facilities (1)

Accept any other suitable type of sponsorship an individual may receive.

[3]

13

Explain how two types of sponsorship may improve an individual’s performance. (2 marks)

[AO2 = 2]

Award one mark for each of the following points up to a maximum of two marks.

• Clothing / footwear, for example higher quality running shoes enables performer to run greater distances / comfort / grip (1)

• Equipment, for example higher quality balls enables advanced skills to be developed / easier to catch / grip (1)

• Facilities, for example could be provided free of charge can train more effectively / often (1)

Accept any other suitable description of how a type of sponsorship may improve an individual’s performance. Answers must directly relate sponsorship to improvement in performance.

[2]

14

The media can have a major influence on its audience.

Identify one type of media and explain two positive effects that it may have on an individual’s performance. (5 marks)

[AO1 = 1 AO2 = 4]

Award one mark for each of the following points up to a maximum of five marks.

AO1

•   Television (1)

•   Radio (1)

•   Newspapers (1)

•   Magazines (1)

•   Books (1)

•   Internet (1)

•   Social media (1)

AO2

•   It demonstrates good performance or gives exemplars for an athlete to copy (1)

•   To improve the standard of the individual’s skills (1)

•   It can educate a performer by analysing individual or team tactics (1)

•   Which can enable a performer to have a greater understanding of the physical activity (1)

•   Slow motion replays highlight good or bad technique (1)

•   Which a performer could then use in his or her own performance (1)

•   It reports on exceptional performance (1)

•   Which can raise the confidence or motivation of a performer (1)

Accept any other suitable response.

[5]

15

Identify two benefits a sponsor would expect to receive as a result of sponsoring an athlete. (2 marks)

[AO2 = 2]

Award one mark for each of the following points up to a maximum of two marks.

•   Increased revenue or increased sales (1)

•   Increased profile by association with successful performer (1)

•   Advertising of the company (1)

•   Cheaper than TV advertising (1)

•   Tax benefits (1)

•   A good relationship developed with the local community (1)

[2]

16

A netball club is seeking sponsorship to help its finances.

State two different types of sponsorship and explain how each could help to improve the players’ performance. (4 marks)

[AO1 = 2 AO2 = 2]

Award one mark for each of the following points up to a maximum of four marks

• (AO1) Equipment e.g. balls (1)

• (AO2) Higher quality enables advanced skills to be developed (1)

• (AO1) Clothing e.g. team kit (1)

• (AO2) Which boosts confidence or morale so that they work better as a team (1)

• (AO1) Footwear (1)

• (AO2) Improves grip to stop them from slipping (1)

• (AO1) Transport and travel (1)

• (AO2) Enter more competitions a greater distance away to play a greater variety of teams (1)

• (AO1) Money (1)

• (AO1) To employ a coach to develop advanced skills (1)

• (AO1) Facilities (1)

• (AO2) Train more often to develop fitness (1)

• (AO1) Entry fees or league fees (1)

• (AO1) Enter more competitions and play at a higher level (1)

Accept any other suitable response.

[4]

17

Many companies sponsor elite performers.

Describe the advantages that a local company might gain from sponsoring an elite athlete. (3 marks)

[AO1 = 3]

Award one mark for each of the following points up to a maximum of three marks

• Increased revenue or increased sales (1)

• Increased profile by association with successful performer (1)

• Advertising of the company (1)

• Cheaper than TV advertising (1)

• Tax benefits (1)

• Develop a good relationship with the local community (1)

Accept any other suitable response.

[3]

18

The media has a large influence over sport.

Identify one type of media and describe two ways in which it can have a positive effect on sport. (5 marks)

[AO1 = 3 AO2 = 2]

Award one mark for each of the following points up to a maximum of five marks

Type of media (Sub-max one mark)

• Television (1)

• Radio (1)

• The press (1)

• Internet (1)

• Social media (1)

Positive effects

• (AO1) They demonstrate good performance or give exemplars for athletes to copy (1)

• (AO2) To improve the standards within the sport (1)

• (AO1) They help officials make decisions (1)

• (AO2) Which improves the reputation of the sport (1)

• (AO1) They can promote the health benefits (1)

• (AO2) Which can increase participation or popularity of activities (1)

• (AO1) Through payment for broadcasting rights or indirectly through sponsorship (1)

• (AO2) Increases revenue coming into the sport (1)

• (AO1) They increase the accessibility of a sport (1)

• (AO2) Which increases its popularity or publicity (1)

Accept any other suitable response.

[5]

19

A football club has only just been formed and needs to attract sponsorship.

State two types of sponsorship that would be useful to the football club. (2 marks)

[AO1 = 2]

Award one mark for each of the following points up to a maximum of two marks

• Specialised training equipment such as footballs, bibs, cones (1)

• Clothing such as team kit or tracksuits or footwear (1)

• Training facilities could be provided to improve performance, e.g. Astroturf (1)

• Specialist coaches to run training sessions (1)

• Money which the club could use to buy what it needs (1)

• Specialist support e.g. physiotherapist to help player recover from injury (1)

• Specialist support e.g. nutritionist to help monitor diet (1)

• Transport to get teams or individuals to matches (1)

[2]

20

Developments in technology have provided benefits to many performers.

State a technological development. Explain, using a specific example, how it is used and the benefit it has had on a named physical activity. (4 marks)

Award up to four marks for a correct response. A development has to be stated
for one mark, the effect it has must be described for one mark and an actual example
must be given for one mark, and one mark for identifying that it enables correct
decisions to be made or for incorrect ones to be overruled.

Examples include:

• the use of instant video replays / it allows a third official to review a play
and make a decision / used for tries in rugby / run outs in cricket etc. / enables
correct decisions to be made

• infra red beams which can detect objects crossing them / allows officials to
tell if balls are in or out/ or when athletes have crossed a line (for timings) /
cyclops in tennis or electronic timing in athletics etc.

• tracing devices which can track the flight or direction of a ball / shows where
a ball would land or hit an object / hawkeye in both tennis and cricket

Accept the above plus any other suitable examples.

[4]

21

Sponsorship is very common in sport.

Paying for transport costs is one example in which sponsorship can help a sports performer. Give three other different examples. (3 marks)

Award one mark for each correctly identified way in which sponsorship
can help a sports performer.

• Through direct cash payments

• Paying for entry fees

• Providing equipment, apparatus

• Providing clothing, footwear

• Paying accommodation costs

• Providing coaching

• Providing training facilities.

Accept the above plus any other suitable examples.

3

22

Sponsorship has many advantages. State and explain an advantage for each of the following, giving a specific example in each case.
The Performer
The Sponsor

Award up to two marks for stating and explaining each advantage and a further one
mark for giving a specific example. (2 × 3 marks).

• Performers can concentrate on sport/training full time or without financial
worries e.g. any professional sportsperson.

• Performers can receive clothing/free of charge or at a cheap rate e.g.Jonny
Wilkinson and David Beckham have a boots and clothing deal with Adidas.

• Performers can receive equipment/free of charge or at a cheap rate/ e.g. Tim
Henman receives rackets from Slazenger.

• The sponsor can get extra advertising/ free or cheaper than TV/ e.g. shirt
sponsors for sports or hoardings in stadia.

• The sponsor can get increased revenue/ from higher sales of goods/ Nike from
its association with Tiger Woods, Andre Agassi.

Accept the above and any other suitable responses.

[6]

23

Describe a positive effect which the media can have. Give an example in your answer. (4 marks)

Award up to four marks. Award up to two marks for describing the positive
effect and up to two marks for the actual example given.

Examples:

• The media can give a better understanding of performance /
which enables people to either enjoy watching the activity more
or even to improve their actual performance. / This can be
achieved by slow motion replays of an activity (such as
gymnastics) / which allows all of the movement to be shown in
detail and appreciated fully

• The media will apportion a large amount of coverage to certain
events. / This will raise their profile and make people more aware
of them. / An example of this is the coverage of gymnastics
within the Olympic Games / which triggers off an increase in
participation and membership in gymnastics clubs throughout the
world.

Accept the above plus any other suitable examples.

4

24

Describe a negative effect which the media can have. Give an example in your answer. (4 marks)

Award up to four marks. Award up to two marks for describing the
negative effect and up to two marks for the actual example given.

Examples:

• The media may have excess coverage of certain activities. / This can
discourage people from going along to see the event. / As there is much
coverage of Premiership soccer on the television viewers will watch
these matches / instead of watching lower level games and the revenue
these lesser clubs receive is therefore reduced significantly

• The media can interfere with the timings of events. / This is done to
cater for the largest viewing audiences they can have. / An example
is cricket / where there are not only day/night matches but also games
arranged out of normal playing seasons to make sure there are sufficient
matches.

Accept the above plus any other suitable examples.

4

25

What is sponsorship? (1 marks)

Providing / paying for clothing / facilities / equipment on someone's behalf, such
as an event, or equipment.

26

Suggest three possible negative effects of having spectators at a sporting event. (3 marks)

[AO1 = 3]

Award one mark for each of the following points up to a maximum of three marks.

•   Negative effect on performance of performer(s) / team(s) as a result of increased pressure from the spectators (1)

•   Potential for crowd trouble / hooliganism / violence / unruly behaviour (1)

•   Safety costs / concerns / policing / CCTV (1)

•   Negative effect on participation numbers amongst younger performers who have been put off by crowd / spectator behaviour (1)

•   Creation of a negative atmosphere (1)

Accept any other suitable outline of a possible negative effect of having spectators at a sporting event.

Max 3 marks

[3]

27

Define gamesmanship. (1 mark)

[AO1 = 1]

(a) Award one mark for each of the following points up to a maximum of one mark.

• Attempting to gain an advantage by stretching the rules to the limit (1)

Accept any other suitable definition of gamesmanship.

1

28

Performers face lengthy bans from competing if they are caught taking a performance enhancing drug.

Identify two possible non-physiological reasons why a performer may risk taking a performance enhancing drug. (2 marks)

[AO1 = 2]

Award one mark for each of the following points up to a maximum of two marks.

• Increased chances of success (1)

• Fame (1)

• Wealth (1)

• Level playing field (1)

Accept any other suitable reason why a performer may risk taking a performance enhancing drug. Answers must refer to non-physiological reasons.

[2]

29

Using a sporting activity of your choice, suggest why performers may use beta blockers. (2 marks)

Using a sporting activity of your choice, suggest why performers may use beta blockers.

30

Correct etiquette is expected in sporting activities.

(a) Define etiquette. (1 mark)

[AO1 = 1]

(a) Award one mark for each of the following points up to a maximum of one mark.

• A convention or unwritten rule in an activity (1)

• It is not an enforceable rule but is usually observed (1)

Accept any other suitable definition of etiquette.

1