Flashcards in Chapter 2: Movement Analysis Deck (35)
Using an example from a sport of your choice, identify the two types of movement that can occur at a hinge joint. (4)
• Flexion (1)
• Extension (1)
Answers must contain the movement and a relevant sporting example.
• (Flexion) lifting a hockey stick in preparation to strike the ball (1)
• (Extension) movement of the stick downwards to strike the ball (1)
What three components do all levers have?
Levers all contain:
• Load (Resistance)
For 1st, 2nd and 3rd class levers describe their mechanical advantage
1st= can have a high/low MA depending on the lengths of load/effort arms
2nd = Always have high MA
3rd = Always have low MA
Lever = a rigid bar (usually a bone) that moves around an axis (usually a joint)
Fulcrum = a fixed point which a lever turns around (also called an axis or joint)
Load = the weight or resistance that a lever moves
Effort = The force required to move a load, usually applied by the muscles
First Class Lever
Fulcrum is always in the middle, load and effort at either end
Third Class Lever
Effort is always in the middle, fulcrum and load at either end
Second Class Lever
Load is always in the middle, fulcrum and effort at either end
Explain Mechanical Disadvantage
Mechanical Disadvantage = when the load arm is longer than the effort arm the load is hard to move
Explain Mechanical Advantage
Mechanical Advantage = Levers with long effort arm and short load arm can move heavy loads with less effort eg a wheelbarrow
What are the Load Arm and Effort Arm?
Load Arm = distance from the load to the fulcrum
Effort Arm = distance from the effort to the fulcrum
What is Mechanical Advantage
Mechanical Advantage is the relationship between the length of the Load Arm and the length of the Effort Arm of a Lever System
Define Flexion and Extension. Which type of joint do they occur at?
Flexion = Closing the angle of a joint
Extension = Opening the angle of a joint
Both occur at hinge joint (elbow/knee)
Define Abduction and Adduction, which type of joint does this occur at?
Abduction = Taking arm/leg away from midline of the body
Adduction = Adding an arm/leng to midline of the body
Both occur at ball and socket (shoulder/hip) joint
Define Dorsi-Flexion and Plantar-Flexion. Which joint do they occur at?
Dorsiflexion = foot flexes upwards
Plantar flexion = foot flexes downwards (point toes)
Both occur at ankle joint
Define Rotation, which type of joint does this occur at
Rotation = Circular movement around a fixed joint
Occurs at ball and socket joints in shoulder/hip
Describe the Frontal Plane
Frontal Plane = divides the body into front and back halves and is concerned with side to side movement eg abduction and adduction
Describe the Transverse Plane
Transverse Plane = divides body into top and bottom halves, concerned with rotational movement.
Describe the Sagittal Plane
Sagittal Plane = divides the body into left and right halves and is concerned with forward and backward movements eg flexion and extension
Describe the Sagittal Axis
Sagittal Axis = Runs through the belly button from front to back, allowing abduction and adduction movements
e.g., the Cartwheel axis
Describe the Longitudinal Axis
Longitudinal Axis = Runs vertically through the body from head to toe allows rotation
e.g., the Twisting axis
Describe the Transverse Axis
Transverse Axis = Runs through hips from left to right allows flexion and extension
e.g., the Somersault axis
Which planes correspond to which axes?
Frontal Plane = Sagittal Axis
Transverse Plane = Longitudinal Axis
Sagittal Plane = Transverse Axis
Define Planes & Axes
Plane = Imaginary line that splits the body into two halves and depicts the direction of movement
Axis = imaginary line through the body around which the body parts rotate
Identify the plane and the axis when the arm bends at the elbow.
• Sagittal plane (1)
• Transverse axis (1)
Identify the type of lever being used at the elbow during the forehand tennis stroke.
Third class lever (1)
A gymnast performs a cartwheel, which plane and axis is the movement taking place about?
• Frontal (plane) (1)
• Sagittal (axis) (1)