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Flashcards in Chapter 3 - Physical Training Deck (51)
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1

What is meant by the term ‘balance’? Give one example from a physical activity. (2)

Balance:

• the ability to retain the centre of mass above the base of support

• physical stability in which the weight of the body is distributed evenly.

Physical activity examples:

• a gymnast being able to maintain a controlled handstand

• a sprinter holding themselves in the set position at the start of a race

• maintaining good footwork when landing in netball or basketball

• a footballer maintaining position on ball when being tackled

2

What is meant by the term ‘co-ordination’? Give one example from a physical activity.

Co-ordination:

• the ability to use two or more body parts together

• the ability to properly control your body when performing a
physical activity

• balanced or skilful movement.

Physical activity examples:

• a pole vaulter linking all the sequences of their jump

• a tennis service action

• batting in cricket or rounders.

3

It is important to lift and carry equipment safely. Describe the technique that you should use when doing this. (3)

Examples:

• the back should be kept straight/ the legs should be bent/ the item to be
carried should be held close to, and secure to, the body

• other factors which might be considered include wearing the correct
footwear, using more than one person for particularly heavy equipment,
not lifting or lowering until told to do so

• accept sport/ activity-specific examples, eg carrying a javelin.

4

State one benefit to fitness which can be achieved by the use of weight training. (1)

(To increase) muscle strength, either general or specific

• (To improve) muscle tone.

5

In relation to weight training, what is the difference between ‘repetitions’ and ‘sets’? (2)

Repetitions are the number of times you actually move the weights.

Sets are the number of times you perform a particular weight activity.

6

State one reason why taking part in regular exercise can improve general health. (1)

Examples include:

• it can help to reduce tension/ stress

• it can help to reduce the chance of getting illnesses and disease

• it can help to improve sleep and sleep patterns

• it can help tone up the body/ lead to improvements in posture

• it can improve basic levels of strength

• it can improve basic levels of stamina

• it can improve basic levels of flexibility

• it can improve fitness levels

7

Explain why the amount of exercise carried out might vary between different types of people. (2)

Examples include:

• Energy requirements might vary/ due to factors such as
age/ gender/and activity/exercise level/level of performance

• The actual physical or psychological condition of an individual
may also vary/ such as possible illness or injury/which could
prevent them from exercising.

8

The vertical jump test measures leg power.

Discuss the suitability of this test for a football player. (3)

Agree (sub-max 2 marks)

• Leg power is a component of fitness needed by football players to perform specific skills (1)

• The test measures the ability to jump up so appropriate for jumping to head the ball / a goalkeeper to launch into a save / other equivalent example (1)

Disagree (sub-max 2 marks)

• The test is not sport-specific as would not test power needed to kick a ball / start a sprint towards the ball / other equivalent example (1)

• Does not test many aspects of playing football, eg. dribbling / marking / other equivalent example (1)

• Can be argued that other aspects of fitness are more important, eg. cardiovascular endurance to last 90 minutes (1)

9

Fitness testing is often used as a motivational tool.

State two other reasons why fitness testing is carried out. (2)

• To identify strengths and / or weaknesses in a performance (1)

• To evaluate the success of a training programme (1)

• To monitor improvement, eg. in strength (1)

• To show a starting level of fitness (1)

• To inform training requirements (1)

• To compare against norms of the group / national averages (1)

10

The Illinois Agility Test is a maximal test that measures agility.

Describe how to carry out this test. (2)

AO1

• 10m long × 5m wide / 60m in total (1)

• Subject starts lying down (on their front) (1)

• Subject sprints and weaves around cones (accept diagram) (1)

• Time taken / measured in seconds = agility (1)

11

Describe the hand grip dynamometer test. (4)

• Adjust the hand grip dynamometer or set it to the start mode.

• Arm hangs by the side with dynamometer in line with forearm or arm is raised above the head and lowered in a circular action or equiv.

• Maximum grip is applied.

• Performer has two or three attempts with best score recorded.

12

Name one test that can be used to measure co-ordination. (1)

• Alternate hand ball throw.

NB Accept hand eye coordination test.

13

Explain how an improvement in co-ordination may enable a sportsperson to improve their performance in a named physical activity. (3)

• Tennis serve – linking all parts of the action / gain more accuracy or power / so more likely to serve an ace or win the point.

• Athletics triple jump – linking the three phases together / gain more speed or height / enabling greater distance to be achieved.

• Ice skating jumps – linking movements together / more technical or aesthetic / and gain higher marks.

• Gymnastics cartwheel – linking movements together / more technical or aesthetic / and gain higher marks.

• Football volley – timing the movement of the foot to the speed and trajectory of a moving ball / more accuracy or power / increasing chances of a goal being scored.

14

Explain why fitness testing is important when following a training programme. (3)

• To assess baseline fitness.

• To motivate the performer.

• To monitor or evaluate progress.

• To set targets or goals.

• To continually highlight strengths or weaknesses.

• To raise confidence.

15

What is meant by ‘speed’? (1)

• The ability to move all or parts of the body as quickly as possible.

• The fastest a person can complete a task or cover a distance.

16

Explain at what point an athlete could use speed to their advantage during a 1500-metre race. (2)

• At the start / to get ahead of the field or to get away from the line quickly.

• When making an attack or break / to get into a better position or to take the lead.

• When defending or reacting to an attack or break / to keep in contact with leaders in the race.

• Towards the end of the race or off the final bend or in the last 200m / to win the race or to get a better position.

17

What is meant by the term ‘reaction time’? (1)

how fast or how quickly or the time taken (for the body, or part of the body) to respond to a stimulus.

Accept appropriate examples, eg time taken by a sprinter at the start of a 100 m race to move the body after the sound of the starting gun.

18

What is meant by the term ‘balance’? Give an example from a physical activity where a performer uses balance.

The ability to:

• maintain a given posture to be able to stay level or stable.

• keep the centre of gravity over the base.

• maintain equilibrium.

• control the body in movement and stillness.

Accept any other suitable response.

Award one mark for an example of where a performer uses balance.

• Handstand (in gymnastics).

• Holding the ‘set’ position in the starting blocks (in athletics).

• A skier staying upright whilst moving downhill.

Accept any other suitable response.

19

Describe the sit and reach test. (2)

• Sit straight legged with feet flat against the bench or equivalent.

• Reach forward, (place hands) on bench or equivalent.

• Measure or record the distance (from toes).

20

Explain how an increase in flexibility may allow a sportsperson to improve performance in a named physical activity. (2)

• A games player can increase their stride length / to get into position quicker to receive a pass.

• A back crawl swimmer will have a longer pull / to go faster or be more efficient.

• A gymnast can perform a difficult move with style / to gain more marks.

21

What is meant by the principle of ‘reversibility’ and state the effect that it may have on performance? (2)

• (When training stops), any gain to the body is lost (use it or lose it).

• Performance will deteriorate or fitness levels will decrease.

22

What is meant by the term 'static strength'? Give an example from a physical activity where a performer uses static strength. (2)

Static strength

• greatest amount of strength that can be applied to an immovable object

• ability of a muscle to exert a force without changing length


Accept the strength you need to push or pull a stationary object or hold a heavy weight

Activity examples include:

• Holding the weight above your head in weight lifting

• Point of engagement in a rugby scrum

• Holding a balance in gymnastics

Accept the above plus any other suitable response.

23

Describe the multi-stage fitness test and explain how it could be used to monitor the fitness of a performer (4)

Award up to two marks for describing the multi-stage fitness test.

• A recording of a series of timed bleeps

• Shuttle runs 20m apart

• Bleeps get progressively closer together (time between bleep gets shorter)

• Have to run faster / when you get to a higher level

• Miss three bleeps you have to drop out

Award up to two further marks for an explanation of how the test could be used to monitor the fitness of a performer.

• Identify baseline data

• Use the results to compare with previous tests (check progress) / or standardised tables

• Adjust training accordingly

• Sets goals or targets

• Assess how successful your training has been

• Measures VO2 max

• Identify strengths or weaknesses.

24

Name and describe a test that can be used to measure power. (3)

Award one mark for naming a test.

• Vertical jump test (Sargent jump) or Standing broad jump (standing long jump)

Award up to two further marks for describing either test.

Vertical jump (Sargent jump)

• Performer stands sideways to a wall, feet flat, performer reaches up and with stretched fingers the highest point is recorded

• Performer, using arms and legs jumps or as high as possible (this is measured)

• Distance between the two measurements is recorded (standing and jump height)

• Performer has three attempts to get best result.

Standing broad jump (standing long jump)

• Performer stands behind a line and performs a two footed take-off and landing (horizontal jump)

• Performer, using arms and legs jumps or as far as possible

• Distance between take off line and landing is measured

• Performer has three attempts to get best result.

25

State what is meant by the term ‘flexibility’. (1)

• The range of movement at a joint.

26

Using an example from a named physical activity, explain how increased flexibility can help to improve performance. (3)

• A games player can increase their stride length / to get into position quicker / to receive a pass.

• A back crawl swimmer will have a longer pull / to go faster / to win a race.

• A gymnast can perform a difficult move with style / to gain more marks / to win a competition.

27

Name one type of strength that an athlete would use in the 100 metres. (1)

• Explosive

• Dynamic

• Static

28

Describe the stork stand test and explain how it could be used to improve performance in a physical activity. (4)


Award two marks for describing the stork stand test.

• Stand comfortably upright with your hands on hips

• stand on one leg

• place toes against the knee of the other leg

• raise heel and stand on your toes

• balance for as long as you can

• without either your heel touching the ground

• or moving your other foot away from your knee

• time is recorded

• and compared to standardised tables.



Award two further marks for explanation of how the test can be
used to improve performance.

• A test can improve balance within a performance in other
sports/ eg kicking a ball, balancing on a beam.

• Use the results to compare with previous tests/
or standardised tables.

• Adjust training accordingly.

• Set goals or targets.

• Assess how successful your training has been.

• Identify strengths or weaknesses.

29

Explain two different advantages of using weight training as a training method. (4)

Examples include:

• it is a convenient way to improve muscular strength/ using free
standing weights allows overload to take place quite easily using
high weights with low repetitions

• it is a convenient way to improve muscle tone / specialist machinery
allows performers to use high repetitions and low weights
conveniently

• there are now a great many specific weight training gyms/
facilities / equipment available / this allows for easy and convenient
access to specialist equipment

30

Describe what is meant by muscular endurance. (2)

The ability to use voluntary muscles /many times/without
getting tired

• The amount of dynamic strength in a muscle/with its ability
to keep working/for a long period of time.