Flashcards in Chapter 6 - Health, Fitness and Well-being Deck (58)
Which somatotype is most suited to high jumping? (1)
How many calories should an average adult female consume per day? (1)
What is a balanced diet? (3)
• Eating the right amount (for energy expended) / the right amount of calories / eating according to how much you exercise (1)
• Eating different food types to provide suitable nutrients, vitamins and minerals (1)
• Eating a diet that contains 55–60% carbohydrates (1)
• Eating a diet that contains 25–30% fat (1)
• Eating a diet that contains 15–20% protein (1)
One possible consequence of a sedentary lifestyle is obesity.
Identify two other consequences of a sedentary lifestyle. (2)
• Heart disease (1)
• Diabetes (1)
• Poor self-esteem (1)
Outline three benefits of taking part in physical activity and sport to an individual’s physical health and well-being. (3)
• Improves heart function so more efficient for exercise (1)
• Improves efficiency of the body systems so able to exercise for longer / more intense (1)
• Reduces the risk of some illnesses so more able to carry out exercise (1)
• Able to do everyday tasks more efficiently so less likely to become fatigued (1)
• Avoid obesity so less likely to suffer speed loss / development of further disease (1)
A group of amateur runners are attempting their first marathon. Some of the runners take advantage of the drinks offered to them during the race whilst others do not.
Evaluate the actions of the runners who do not take advantage of the drinks available. (3)
• More likely to suffer from dehydration, which has a negative effect on running performance (1)
• More likely to suffer from increases in heart rate so the heart has to work harder to supply oxygen to the muscles when running (1)
• Reduction in blood flow to working muscles / thicker (viscous blood) which means less oxygen to the muscles and it is harder to remove waste products – slows recovery so harder to continue in the marathon (1)
• Increase in body temperature so body could overheat during the race and become faint / pass out and cannot carry on (1)
• Muscle fatigue more likely which could cause cramps so cannot carry on (1)
Which body type would be most suitable for a basketball player? (1)
Diet can have a positive effect on a sporting performance.
Explain why a diet high in carbohydrates could lead to an improvement in a sportsperson’s performance. (3)
• Provides fast release energy supply or readily available energy for a quick boost / for short or explosive type activities / allowing performers to run faster or throw or jump further. OR
• Provides slow release energy supply / or endurance type activities or to delay fatigue / allowing performers to compete for longer. OR
• Provides and increases the amount of glycogen or energy stored/ delaying tiredness / allowing the performer to be more effective at the end of an endurance or aerobic activity. OR
• Aids recovery / reducing stiffness and soreness / so the performer can train again sooner.
Explain how drinking water and other fluids could help to improve a sportsperson’s performance. (3)
• Maintain hydration or prevent dehydration / to avoid cramp / so the performer is able to keep working hard or can work for longer / at a higher level.
• Maintain hydration / to maintain focus or concentration / so the performer makes fewer mistakes / and can perform at a higher level.
• Maintain hydration / provide electrolytes / allowing the body to replace lost salts / so the performer is able to continue working for longer or faster or at a higher level.
Fatigue often occurs when a person is participating in a physical activity.
What is meant by the term ‘fatigue’? (1)
Fatigue is a feeling of extreme or severe (physical or mental) tiredness or exhaustion.
An individual may take part in non-competitive activities as part of their leisure and recreation time.
State five benefits of taking part in a non-competitive activity. (5)
• General fitness can be improved.
• Specific aspects of fitness can be improved / including flexibility / stamina / agility etc.
• General health can be improved.
• Physical health benefits / including weight loss / body shape / lower cholesterol etc.
• Mental health benefits / including stress release / feel good factor / having fun / improved self-esteem etc.
• Activities are not generally stressful on the body’s cardiovascular and skeletal systems.
• Can be suitable for all age ranges.
• Participation can carry on throughout life.
• Group activities can provide social benefits by meeting and carrying out the activity with others.
• Completing activities can be done at the individual’s pace.
• Being non-competitive can be appealing in itself.
• May involve club activities, which can motivate a person to regularly participate.
• Suitable for males and females to participate together.
An ectomorph is one body type. Name two other body types. (2)
Describe an ectomorph. (3)
• slender or slim or thin or skinny.
• thin arms and legs.
• narrow shoulders.
• narrow hips.
• very little muscle.
• very little fat.
• long (tall) – accept short.
Explain one advantage that having an ectomorph body type would give in a named physical activity. (3)
• in endurance activities (marathon or long distance running) it would be easier to run / because very little weight to be carried around.
• in high jump a lighter body weight / would make it easier to jump over the bar.
• in netball it would be an advantage because a goal shooter would have a higher reach / to give the team a higher chance of scoring.
• in basketball it would be an advantage because it would be easier for the player to shoot / as they are closer to the basket or the opposition wouldn’t be able to block the shot.
A person’s diet can affect their ability when participating in physical activity.
Name two nutrients that netball players should include in their diets and explain how each could help to improve their performance late in matches. (6)
Award one mark for each nutrient named and up to two further marks for explaining how each could help to improve their performance late in matches (2x3).
• Proteins / will help with the growth or repair of muscles to reduce recovery time between matches / which will delay the feeling of tiredness.
• Carbohydrates or fats / to provide energy throughout the whole game / to ensure they can compete to their maximum.
• Water / to maintain fluid levels or to avoid dehydration to help concentration or reduce fatigue / to continue to compete effectively (make fewer mistakes).
• Minerals eg Iron / increase the body’s efficiency to carry oxygen to the working muscles of the body / which will allow them to compete effectively for longer.
• Vitamins eg vitamin C / to protect against disease and infection which will enable training to continue / so fitness levels will not be lost.
• Fibre / helps reduce levels of cholesterol making the heart more efficient / which will allow them to keep working for longer.
• Fats / can act as an insulator to help keep players warm / so they can continue to compete in cold weather.
State and explain two different ways in which a high protein diet could help to improve a sportsperson’s performance. (4)
Award one mark for stating and one further mark explaining each way a high protein diet may help to improve a sportsperson’s performance, up to a maximum of four marks (2x2).
• Repair or recovery of muscle or tissue / return to training or competition earlier.
• Growth of muscle or increased strength / exert more power or eg when throwing a javelin.
• Reduces storage of fat or helps lose weight / more effective performance as not carrying surplus weight.
Using an example from a named physical activity, explain why a sportsperson may consume more fat in his / her diet in order to improve performance. (3)
Award one mark for the example and a further two marks for why a sportsperson may consume more fat in his / her diet.
• Marathon / as a high energy source/ delay tiredness.
• Open water swimming / as an insulator or to keep warm / to be able to swim for longer.
• Long distance cycling / slow release energy / improve performances in latter stages.
• Rugby prop forward or sumo wrestler / as additional weight / more pressure on opposition.
People take part in physical activities for different reasons.
State three reasons why people choose to take part in relaxing activities, such as yoga. (3)
• Enjoyment or fun.
• Company or social benefits.
• Maintain or improve health / lower blood pressure.
• Mental benefits / release of stress / keeps mind active.
• Sense of achievement or personal fulfilment.
• Low intensity activity / less physically demanding.
• Maintain or improve fitness / flexibility / balance.
Most outdoor and adventurous activities are physically very demanding.
State two benefits of providing high carbohydrate meals at an outdoor and adventurous activity centre. (2)
• Main energy source.
• Slow release energy / so visitors can complete all of the activities throughout the day or delay the onset of fatigue.
Which one of the following is a positive long-term effect of a healthy active lifestyle? (1)
A Lower resting heart rate
B Increased breathing rate
C High blood pressure
D Tiredness in the muscles
Lower resting heart rate
There is a trend towards obesity in young people.
State what obesity is and explain how a young person can avoid becoming obese. (3)
Award one mark for stating what obesity is.
• Obesity is being extremely over weight or abnormally fat
• BMI of 30 and over or when a person is 20% over the standard weight for their height
Award a further two marks for describing how a young person can avoid becoming obese
• Obesity can be avoided by taking part in regular exercise and / following a balanced or healthy diet or not over eating
• Obesity can be avoided by maintaining an energy balance / the amount of food energy taken in should not exceed the energy expended.
Explain the negative effects that obesity can have on the body. (3)
• Obesity increases strain on the joints / increasing the risk of injury or osteoarthritis
• Obesity increases strain on the cardiovascular system / increasing risk of heart disease
• Obesity can cause high blood pressure or high cholesterol or clogs the arteries / resulting in a stroke or heart attack
• Obesity increases the strain on the respiratory system / leading to shortness of breath
• Obesity increases the risk of diabetes / resulting in early mortality
• Obesity decreases mobility / resulting in a lack of speed or agility
• Obesity causes early onset of fatigue / resulting in giving up quicker.
Diet is an important factor to consider when participating in a physical activity.
Explain how a carbohydrate loading diet could help an athlete to perform to the best of their ability in a half marathon. (4)
By eating (high-carbohydrate) meals such as pasta / which is a slow release energy source / in the three days before the half marathon / an athlete will increase the glycogen level in their muscles and liver / to its maximum/so an athlete would have more energy available during the run. / This would help to delay the onset of fatigue (or reduce levels of fatigue) / and could help their to maintain their performance in the later stages of the run / as glycogen is as an immediate reserve source of available glucose for muscle cells. / Their liver will also readily break down its stored glycogen into glucose / and send it through the blood stream as fuel for their muscles.
More people over 65 years of age are taking part in a range of physical activities.
Explain why swimming is an appropriate physical activity for a healthy 65-year-old person. (3)
• Less strenuous or will not over stress / the heart or joints
• Non weight bearing / less damage to joints
• Can be done at own pace / can do as much or little as you want
• Uses all muscles / a way of keeping active
• It raises the heart rate / it develops fitness or health
• Can be performed all year round / as it is an indoor activity
• Relatively cheap / may be concessions for elderly
• It is a social activity / good way of making or maintaining friendships
Other than an improvement to fitness, give two reasons why a family may benefit from becoming members of a local health club. (2)
• Social benefits to the family
• Have fun together
• Allows them to compete against each other
• Able to relieve tension within the family
• Meet other families or people with similar interests
• Spending more time together
• To encourage the family to participate in a new physical activity
• Enables family members to lose weight or improve physical appearance
• Encourages family members to become more engaged in physical activity
• To improve self-esteem or self-confidence.
Explain how a swimmer's knowledge of food and nutrition could be used to improve their performance in a 800m freestyle event. (6)
• A balanced diet will meet their active lifestyle demands
• To maintain the correct weight of an efficient and maximal performance
• Carbohydrates to supply a ready source of energy, any excess stored as glycogen. They will require slow, complex carbohydrates to enable them to sustain high intensity work over a long period of time
• Carbohydrate loading would be beneficial
• Simple carbohydrates also needed for short bursts of intensive activity (sprint finish), replenished throughout the event
• Fats also required as a major energy source
• Protein also required assisting in body growth and muscular repair. Allows the body to recover quicker, allowing training or competition the following day. Also enable the body to grow so gets stronger and more powerful, therefore more effective in performance
• Water to maintain hydration so body can function optimally when training. Loss of water affects performance quite dramatically, causing fatigue and loss of concentration. Also assists in transportation of nutrients, blood flow, oxygen transportation, waste removal and heat regulation
• Vitamins and Minerals will assist in many body and chemical processes. Main ones highlighted will be Iron (Oxygen transportation) and Calcium (bone strength and density).
Which one of the following activities would be most suitable for an ectomorph? (1)
A Olympic weightlifting
B Shot put
C High jump
The sports nutritionist advises that fibre is an important nutrient in Usain Bolt’s diet because it keeps his digestive system healthy.
Name three other nutrients that are important in Usain Bolt’s diet and explain how each may help his performance in training and in competition. (6)
• Protein / will help with the growth and repair of muscle needed when sprinting or training to reduce recovery time.
• Carbohydrate / to provide energy during training and competing to his maximum.
• Water / to maintain fluid levels or to avoid dehydration to continue to train or compete effectively.
• Fats / additional energy source to continue to train or compete effectively.
• Minerals eg iron / increase the body’s efficiency to carry oxygen to the working muscles of the body or to produce energy to continue to train or compete effectively.
• Vitamins eg vitamin C / to protect against disease and infection to enable training or competing to continue.
Diet is extremely important to improve sporting performance.
Why does the body need protein? (2)
• Builds muscles
• Necessary to make enzymes and hormones
• Source of energy
• Repairs tissue within the body
• Essential to help body heal after injury
• Improve levels of concentration