Chapter 5-Systems Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 5-Systems Deck (51):
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Organism

Any living thing

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Species

a group of living organisms capable of interbreeding with each other but not with members of other species

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Population

a group of individuals of the same species living in the same area at a particular time

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Community

more than one population living in the same area at a particular time

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Ecosystem

communities of organisms that interact with each other and their environment

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Ecology

the study of ecosystems

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Producers

organism at the base of the food chain that does not need to feed on other organisms; also known as an autotroph

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Decomposers

organisms that break down organic matter into inorganic materials

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Photosynthesis

the food-making process in plants that takes place in chloroplasts within cells. The process uses carbon dioxide, water and energy from the sun.

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Consumer

organism that relies on other organisms for its food; also known as a heterotroph

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Herbivores

animal that eats only plants

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Primary Consumers

the first consumer in a food chain; also known as a first-order consumer

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Carnivores

an animal that eats other animals

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Omnivores

animal that eats plants and other animals

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Detrivore

animal that feeds on and breaks down dead plant or animal matter

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Ecological niche

the position of a species or population in its ecosystem in relation to each other

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Competition

the struggle among organisms for food, territory and other factors

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Parasitism

an interaction in which one species (the parasite) lives in or on another species (the host) from which it obtains food, shelter and other requirements

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Mutualism

relationship between two different organisms in which both benefit

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Commensalism

relationship between organisms where one benefits and the other is unaffected

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Inter specific Competition

competition between organisms of the same species

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Intrasoecific Competition

competition between organisms of different species

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Distribution

the area inhabited by a plant or animal species

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Chemosynthesis

describes organisms that produce organic material using energy released from chemical reactions rather than light

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Food chains

diagram that shows how the energy stored in one organism is passed to another

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Food webs

diagram showing several food chains joined together to demonstrate that animals eat more than one type of food

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Trophic Level

a level within a food chain, food web or food pyramid

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Primary Consumers

the first consumer in a food chain; also known as a first-order consumer

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Secondary Consumers

the second consumer in a food chain; also known as a second-order consumer

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Energy Pyramid

: a representation of the level of food energy at each level within a food chain

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Pyramid of Numbers

a representation of the population, or numbers of organisms, at each level within a food chain

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Pyramid of Biomass

a representation of the dry mass of organisms at each level within a food chain

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Birth Rate

the number of organisms within a population that are born within a particular period of time

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Death Rate

the number of organisms within a population that die within a particular period of time

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Immigration

the number of individuals moving into an area

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Emigration

the number of individuals leaving an area

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Exponential Growth

a rapid increase in number or size, represented by a J-shaped graph

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Sigmoid

the shape of a graph that shows a population increasing in number then reaching a plateau

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Equilibrium

a state in which conditions are balanced and there is neither growth nor a decrease in number; also known as steady state or plateau phase

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Zero population Growth

the point at which birth and death rates balance each other out

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Carrying Capacity

the maximum population size that a particular environment can sustain

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Combustion

chemical reaction in that a substance reacts with oxygen and heat is released

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Fuel

a substance that is burned in order to release energy, usually in the form of heat

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Fossil Fuels

substance, such as coal, oil and natural gas, that has formed from the remains of ancient organisms. Coal, oil and natural gas are often used as fuels; that is, they are burned in order to produce heat.

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Hydrocarbons

compounds containing only hydrogen and carbon atoms

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Natural Gas

gas formed from the remains of plants and animals that died millions of years ago; a fossil fuel

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Octane

the major component of petrol

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Crude Oil

liquid formed from the remains of marine plants and animals that died million of years ago—a fossil fuel. Many other fuel products are obtained from crude oil.

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Kerosene

: the fuel used in jet aircraft

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Respiration

the process by which your body gains energy by breaking down glucose, using oxygen and creating carbon dioxide and water; a slow combustion reaction

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Oxidation

chemical reaction involving the loss of electrons by a substance