Chapter 5-Systems Flashcards Preview

Science Year 9 > Chapter 5-Systems > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chapter 5-Systems Deck (65):
1

Organism

Any living thing

2

Species

a group of living organisms capable of interbreeding with each other but not with members of other species

3

Population

a group of individuals of the same species living in the same area at a particular time

4

Community

more than one population living in the same area at a particular time

5

Ecosystem

communities of organisms that interact with each other and their environment

6

Ecology

the study of ecosystems

7

Producers

organism at the base of the food chain that does not need to feed on other organisms; also known as an autotroph

8

Decomposers

organisms that break down organic matter into inorganic materials

9

Photosynthesis

the food-making process in plants that takes place in chloroplasts within cells. The process uses carbon dioxide, water and energy from the sun.

10

Consumer

organism that relies on other organisms for its food; also known as a heterotroph

11

Herbivores

animal that eats only plants

12

Primary Consumers

the first consumer in a food chain; also known as a first-order consumer

13

Carnivores

an animal that eats other animals

14

Omnivores

animal that eats plants and other animals

15

Detrivore

animal that feeds on and breaks down dead plant or animal matter

16

Ecological niche

the position of a species or population in its ecosystem in relation to each other

17

Competition

the struggle among organisms for food, territory and other factors

18

Parasitism

an interaction in which one species (the parasite) lives in or on another species (the host) from which it obtains food, shelter and other requirements

19

Mutualism

relationship between two different organisms in which both benefit

20

Commensalism

relationship between organisms where one benefits and the other is unaffected

21

Inter specific Competition

competition between organisms of the same species

22

Intrasoecific Competition

competition between organisms of different species

23

Distribution

the area inhabited by a plant or animal species

24

Density

the number of a species living within an area

25

Ecosystem

communities of organisms that interact with each other and their environment

26

Biotic Factors

the living things (organisms) in an ecosystem

27

Tolerance Range

range of an abiotic factor in the environment in which an organism can survive

28

Optimum Range

the range, within a tolerance range for a particular abiotic factor, in which an organism functions best

29

Biodiversity

the variety of species of biological organisms, often in relation to a particular area

30

Sampling Methods

techniques used to determine the density and distribution of various populations and communities within an ecosystem

31

Transects

a sampling area along a straight line in which the number of organisms in that area is counted and recorded

32

Quadrants

a sampling area, often one square metre, in which the number of organisms in that area is counted and recorded

33

Mark, release and capture

a sampling method used to determine the abundance of mobile species

34

Chemosynthetic

describes organisms that produce organic material using energy released from chemical reactions rather than light

35

Food Chains

diagram that shows how the energy stored in one organism is passed to another

36

Food webs

diagram showing several food chains joined together to demonstrate that animals eat more than one type of food

37

Tropic level

a level within a food chain, food web or food pyramid

38

First order consumer

organism that is within the second trophic level of a food chain (herbivores); also known as a primary consumer

39

Second order consumer

organism that is within the third trophic level of a food chain (carnivores); also known as a secondary consumer

40

Energy Pyramid

a representation of the level of food energy at each level within a food chain

41

Pyramid of Numbers

a representation of the population, or numbers of organisms, at each level within a food chain

42

Pyramid of Biomass

a representation of the dry mass of organisms at each level within a food chain

43

Birth rate

the number of organisms within a population that are born within a particular period of time

44

Death rate

the number of organisms within a population that die within a particular period of time

45

Immigration

the number of individuals moving into an area

46

Emigration

the number of individuals leaving an area

47

Exponential Growth

a rapid increase in number or size, represented by a J-shaped graph

48

Sigmoid

the shape of a graph that shows a population increasing in number then reaching a plateau

49

Equilibrium

state in which conditions are balanced and there is neither growth nor a decrease in number; also known as steady state or plateau phase

50

Zero population growth

the point at which birth and death rates balance each other out

51

Carrying capacity

the maximum population size that a particular environment can sustain

52

Eutrophication

a form of water pollution involving an excess of nutrients such as nitrates and phosphorus, resulting in algal blooms and possible death of fish and other organisms

53

Insecticides

a chemical used to kill insects

54

Fungicides

chemical used to kill fungal growth

55

Herbicides

a chemical used to kill unwanted plants (weeds)

56

Fumigant a

a chemical used in the form of smoke or fumes, to kill pests

57

Bioaccumulation

magnification of concentrations of a substance such as a nonbiodegradable pesticide along the food chain; also known as biological magnification

58

Introduced Species

an organism that has been released into an ecosystem in which it does not occur naturally

59

Nocturnal

active only at night

60

Thermoreceptors

special cells located in your skin, part of your brain and body core that are sensitive to temperature

61

Xerophytes

plant that is adapted to survive in deserts and other dry habitats

62

Ephemeral

lasting for only a very short time

63

Perennial

lasting for three or more years

64

Drought Toleratant

able to tolerate a period of time without water

65

Drought Resistant

able to store water and hence tolerate long periods of time without water