Chapter 2-Control And Coordination Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 2-Control And Coordination Deck (67):
1

Homeostasis

the maintenance of a relatively constant internal physiological environment of the body or part of the body (e.g. blood glucose level, pH, body temperature) in varying external conditions

2

Stimulus-response Model

a system in which any changes or variations (stimuli) in the internal environment are detected (by receptors); if a response is required, this is communicated to effectors to bring about some type of change or correction so the conditions can be brought back to normal

3

Glucose

a simple carbohydrate and the simplest form of sugar

4

Pancreas

a large gland in the body that produces and secretes the hormone insulin and an important digestive fluid containing enzymes

5

Insulin

hormone that removes glucose from the blood and stores it as glycogen in the liver and muscles

6

Glycogen

the main storage carbohydrate in animals, converted from glucose by the liver and stored in the liver and muscle tissue

7

Nervous System

the system of nerves and nerve centres in an animal in which messages are sent as an electrical and then a chemical impulse. It comprises the central nervous system and the peripheral nervous system.

8

Endocrine System

the body system of glands that produce and secrete hormones into the bloodstream in order to regulate processes in various organs

9

Signalling Molecules

a chemical involved in transmitting information between cells

10

Central Nervous system

The part of the nervous system composed of the brain and spinal cord

11

Sensory Nerons

a nerve cell in the sense organs. It detects change in the environment and sends a message to the central nervous system.

12

Motor Neurons

the nerve cell that causes an organ, such as a muscle or gland, to respond to a stimulus

13

Neurotransmitters

chemical released from the axon terminals into the synapse between your nerve cells (neurons) during a nerve impulse

14

Endocrine Glands

organs that produce hormones. Endocrine glands release their hormones into the bloodstream for transport to target organs.

15

Hormones

chemical substances produced by glands and circulated in the blood. Hormones have specific effects in the body.

16

Thermoregalation

the control of body temperature

17

Thermostat

a device that establishes and maintains a desired temperature automatically

18

Positive Feed back system

When the body initiates or does something and receives a positive response so it keeps doing it

19

Negative Feedback System

When the body initiates or does something and it receives a negative response so it stops

20

Multi Cellular Organism

an organism that is composed of many cells. Most plants and animals are multicellular.

21

Homeostasis

the maintenance of a relatively constant internal physiological environment of the body or part of the body (e.g. blood glucose level, pH, body temperature) in varying external conditions

22

Stimulus-response Model

a system in which any changes or variations (stimuli) in the internal environment are detected (by receptors); if a response is required, this is communicated to effectors to bring about some type of change or correction so the conditions can be brought back to normal

23

Glucose

a simple carbohydrate and the simplest form of sugar

24

Pancreas

a large gland in the body that produces and secretes the hormone insulin and an important digestive fluid containing enzymes

25

Insulin

hormone that removes glucose from the blood and stores it as glycogen in the liver and muscles

26

Glycogen

the main storage carbohydrate in animals, converted from glucose by the liver and stored in the liver and muscle tissue

27

Nervous System

the system of nerves and nerve centres in an animal in which messages are sent as an electrical and then a chemical impulse. It comprises the central nervous system and the peripheral nervous system.

28

Endocrine System

the body system of glands that produce and secrete hormones into the bloodstream in order to regulate processes in various organs

29

Signalling Molecules

a chemical involved in transmitting information between cells

30

Central Nervous system

The part of the nervous system composed of the brain and spinal cord

31

Sensory Nerons

a nerve cell in the sense organs. It detects change in the environment and sends a message to the central nervous system.

32

Motor Neurons

the nerve cell that causes an organ, such as a muscle or gland, to respond to a stimulus

33

Neurotransmitters

chemical released from the axon terminals into the synapse between your nerve cells (neurons) during a nerve impulse

34

Endocrine Glands

organs that produce hormones. Endocrine glands release their hormones into the bloodstream for transport to target organs.

35

Hormones

chemical substances produced by glands and circulated in the blood. Hormones have specific effects in the body.

36

Thermoregalation

the control of body temperature

37

Thermostat

a device that establishes and maintains a desired temperature automatically

38

Positive Feed back system

When the body initiates or does something and receives a positive response so it keeps doing it

39

Negative Feedback System

When the body initiates or does something and it receives a negative response so it stops

40

Multi Cellular Organism

an organism that is composed of many cells. Most plants and animals are multicellular.

41

Central Nervous System

the part of the nervous system composed of the brain and spinal cord

42

Peripheral Nervous System

made up of sensory and motor neurons. It connects the central nervous system to the rest of the body, and detects and responds to change.

43

Neuron

Nervous System

44

Nerves

bundle of neurons

45

Sensory Neurons

nerve cell in the sense organs. It detects change in the environment and sends a message to the central nervous system.

46

Sense Organs

a specialised structure that detects stimuli (such as light, sound, touch, taste and smell) in your environment

47

Stimuli

changes in the environment that can be detected and responded to

48

Thermo Receptors

special cells located in your skin, part of your brain and body core that are sensitive to temperature

49

Mechano Receptors

special cells within the skin, inner ear and skeletal muscles that are sensitive to touch, pressure and motion, enabling you to balance, hear and sense pressure and movement

50

Chemoreceptors

special cells within a sense organ (especially the nose and tastebuds) that are sensitive to particular chemicals, giving you the sensations of smell and taste

51

Photoreceptors

a receptor cell located in your eye that is stimulated by light, converting it to electrical energy that is sent to the brain, giving you the sensation of light

52

Pain Receptors

special cells located throughout the body (except the brain) that send nerve signals to the brain and spinal cord in the presence of damaged or potentially damaged cells, resulting in the sensation of pain

53

Hot Thermoreceptors

a type of receptor in your skin that can detect an increase in skin temperature above 37.5°C (normal body temperature)

54

Cold Thermoreceptors

a type of receptor in your skin that can detect a decrease in skin temperature below 35.8 °C

55

Olfactory Nerve

nerve that sends signals to the brain from the chemoreceptors in the nose

56

Pupil

a hole through which light enters the eye

57

Iris

coloured part of the eye that opens and closes the pupil to control the amount of light that enters the eye

58

Reflex action

a quick response to a stimulus. Reflex actions do not involve thought.

59

Cornea

the curved, clear outer covering of your eye

60

Lens

a transparent curved object that bends light towards or away from a point called the focus. The eye has a jelly-like lens.

61

Retina

curved surface at the back of the eye. It is lined with sight receptors.

62

Short Sightedness

the condition of not being able to see clearly things that are far away

63

long Sightedness

the condition of not being able to see clearly things that are close

64

Optic Nerve

large nerve that sends signals to the brain from the sight receptors in the retina

65

Colour Blindness

an inherited condition, more common in males, in which a deficiency of one or more of the different types of cones may mean that you find it difficult to see a particular colour or combinations of colours

66

Rods

sensory receptors in the retina that respond to low levels of light and allow you to see in black and white in dim light

67

Cones

ina.