Chapter 3-Systems Working Together Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 3-Systems Working Together Deck (52):
1

Carbohydrates

organic substances, such as sugars and starch, that are made up of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen and contain useful chemical energy

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Lipids

type of nutrient that includes fats and oils

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Proteins

chemical made up of amino acids needed for the growth and repair of the cells in living things

4

Vitamins

organic nutrients required in small amounts. They include vitamins A, B, C, D and K.

5

Minerals

any of the inorganic elements that are essential to the functioning of the human body and are obtained from foods

6

Endocrine System

the body system of glands that produce and secrete hormones into the bloodstream in order to regulate processes in various organs

7

Nervous System

the system of nerves and nerve centres in an animal in which messages are sent as an electrical and then a chemical impulse. It comprises the central nervous system and the peripheral nervous system.

8

Dehydrated

state in which too much water has been lost from the body

9

Constipartion

a condition of the bowels, caused by lack of dietary fibre, in which solid wastes cannot easily leave

10

Digestive System

A complex series of organs and glands that processes food in order to supply your body with the nutrients it needs to function effectively

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Excretory System

he body system that removes waste substances from the body

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Digestion

breakdown of food into a form that can be used by an animal. It includes both mechanical digestion and chemical digestion.

13

Enzymes

special chemicals that speed up reactions but are themselves not used up in the reaction

14

Saliva

watery substance in the mouth that moistens food before swallowing

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Salivary glands

Glands in the mouth that produce saliva

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Chemical digestion

The chemical reactions changing food into simpler substances that are absorbed into the bloodstream for use in other parts of the body

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Mechanical Digestion

digestion that uses physical factors such as chewing with the teeth

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Bolus

Round, chewed-up ball of food made in the mouth that makes swallowing easier

19

Oesophagus

part of the digestive system composed of a tube connecting the mouth and pharynx with the stomach

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Peristalsis

the process of pushing food along the oesophagus or small intestine by the action of muscles

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Small Intestine

the part of the digestive system between the stomach and large intestine, where much of the digestion of food and absorption of nutrients takes place

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Abosroption

the taking in of a substance, for example, from the intestine to the surrounding capillaries

23

Villi

Tiny finger-like projections from the wall of the intestine that maximise the surface area of the structure to increase the efficiency of nutrient absorption. Singular = villus.

24

Gall Bladder

a small organ that stores and concentrates bile within the body

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Lipases

enzymes that break fats and oils down into fatty acids and glycerol

26

Amylases

an enzyme in saliva that breaks starch down into sugar

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Proteases

Enzymes that break proteins down into amino acids

28

Pancreas

a large gland in the body that produces and secretes the hormone insulin and an important digestive fluid containing enzymes

29

Colon

the part of the large intestine where a food mass passes from the small intestine, and where water and other remaining essential nutrients are absorbed into your body

30

Large Intestine

the penultimate part of the digestive system, where water is absorbed from the waste before it is transported out of the body

31

Vitamin D

a nutrient that regulates the concentration of calcium and phosphate in the bloodstream and promotes the healthy growth and remodelling of bone, along with other functions

32

Cellulose

a natural substance that keeps the cell walls of plants rigid

33

Rectum

the final section of the digestive system, where waste food matter is stored as faeces before being excreted through the anus

34

Anus

the final part of the digestive system, through which faeces are passed as waste

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Excretion

removal of wastes from the body

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Skin

external covering of an animal body

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Lungs

the organ for breathing air. Gas exchange occurs in the lungs.

38

Liver

largest gland in the body. The liver secretes bile for digestion of fats, builds proteins from amino acids, breaks down many substances harmful to the body and has many other essential functions.

39

Kidneys

body organs that filter the blood, removing urea and other wastes

40

Receptors

special cells that detect energy and convert it to electrical energy that is sent to the brain

41

Glucose

a simple carbohydrate and the simplest form of sugar

42

Cellular Respiration

the chemical reaction involving oxygen that moves the energy in glucose into the compound ATP. The body is able to use the energy contained in ATP.

43

ATP

adenosine triphosphate: a form of energy released during cellular respiration that provides cells with the energy needed to perform their functions

44

Respiratory System

the body system involving the lungs and associated structures, which take in air and supply the blood with oxygen to deliver to the body’s cells so they can carry out their essential functions; it also performs gas exchange to remove the waste gas carbon dioxide

45

Circulatory System

The body system that circulates oxygen in blood to all the cells of the body. The circulatory system consists of the heart, blood vessels and blood.

46

Glycogen

the main storage carbohydrate in animals, converted from glucose by the liver and stored in the liver and muscle tissue

47

Glucagon

A hormone, produced by the pancreas, that increases blood glucose levels

48

Insulin

Hormone that removes glucose from the blood and stores it as glycogen in the liver and muscles

49

Diabetes Mellitus

a medical condition in which the liver cannot effectively convert glucose to glycogen

50

Type 1 Diabeetus

a disease in which the pancreas stops producing insulin. Without insulin, the body’s cells cannot turn glucose (sugar) into energy, and so daily insulin injections are required.

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Type 2 diabetes

the most common form of diabetes, where the pancreas makes some insulin but does not produce enough. It can often be managed with regular exercise and healthy eating.

52

Glycamic Index

a measure of how quickly a particular food raises the level of blood sugar over a two-hour period