Chapter 52: An Introduction to Ecology and the Biosphere Flashcards Preview

A.P. Biology > Chapter 52: An Introduction to Ecology and the Biosphere > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chapter 52: An Introduction to Ecology and the Biosphere Deck (125):
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ecology

scientific study of the interactions between organisms and the environment

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global ecology

examines influence of exchange of energy/materials on organisms across the biosphere

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biosphere

all ecosystems and landscapes of the planet

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landscape ecology

factors controlling exchange of energy, material, and organisms across multiple ecosystems

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landscape

multiple connected ecosystems

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ecosystem ecology

energy flow and chemical cycling between organisms and environment

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ecosystem

community of organisms in an area and physical factors with which they interact

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community ecology

how community structure and organization are affected by interactions between species

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community

group of populations of different species in an area

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population ecology

analyzes factors affecting population size over time

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population

group of individuals of same species in an area

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organismal ecology

how organism's structure, physiology, and behavior meet environmental challenges

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organismal ecology includes

physiological, evolutionary, and behavioral ecology

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climate

long-term weather conditions in a given area

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climate is most significant influence on

distribution of organisms

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components of climate

temperature, precipitation, sunlight, wind

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macroclimate

climate patterns on global, regional, and landscape scale

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microclimate

fine, localized climate patterns

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global climate patterns determined by

input of solar energy and Earth's movement in space

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tropics

regions between 23.5 degrees north and south

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high temperatures and evaporation in tropics cause

lots of precipitation

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air flows towards from tropics towards poles so 30 degrees north and south have

dry, arid climate
air picks up moisture across the land

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around 60 degrees north and south

water content is dumped

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from 60 degrees north and south, air continues to flow towards poles causing

cold and rainless climate

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which wind patterns are favored due to the rotation of the Earth?

easterly and westerly

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easterly winds

cool winds blowing east to west in tropics

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westerly winds

blow west to east in temperate zones

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seasonality

Earth's rotation and tilted axis cause strong seasonal cycles in middle/high altitudes

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in june earth is tilted

towards sun

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in december earth is tilted

away from sun

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Earth has constant tilt of

23.5 degrees

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September and March equinoxes

no tilt towards/away from sun - exactly 12 hours of daylight and 12 hours of darkness

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bodies of water impact climate by

heating/cooling of air masses by ocean currents

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impact on climate by water during the day

land hotter than water, cool wind from water across land

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impact on climate by water during the night

water hotter than land, cool wind from land to water

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mediterranean climate

hot, arid climate inland due to cool ocean breeze absorbing moisture
around Mediterranean Sea, southern CA, southwestern Australia

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mountains impact climate cause

warm, moist air approaches mountain, rises, and dumps water content creating a rain shadow

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impact of rain shadow on leeward side of mountain

dry, desert conditions as air picks up moisture

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every 1000m increase in elevation causes a

6 degrees Celsius drop in temperature

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regional and local climate impacted by

seasonality, bodies of water, mountains

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microclimate influence by

shade, evaporation from soil, wind patterns

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abiotic factors

nonliving (chemical and physical) factors

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biotic factors

living factors

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abiotic and biotic factors factors make up

environment

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global climate change

large-scale change in climate affects biosphere and thus distribution of organisms

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last seen example of global climate change

end of most recent Ice Age

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biomes

major life zones characterized by vegetation type (terrestrial) and physical environment (aquatic)

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climograph

plot of annual mean temperature and precipitation in a region

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biomes characterized by

major physical/climate features, predominant vegetation, microorganisms, fungi, animals

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ecotone

area of intergradation between different biomes

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vertical layering

upper canopy, low-tree layer, shrub understory, ground layer, forest floor (litter layer), and root layer

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vertical layering allows for

variation of habitat

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disturbance

event that changes a community removing organisms from it and altering resource availability

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disturbance causes biomes to exhibit

several different communities

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tropical forest

equatorial and subequatorial regions
much precipitation, high temperatures

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tropical forests have highest

animal diversity of all biomes

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how have humans impacted tropical forests

deforestation

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desert

30 degrees north or south; interior areas of land
little precipitation, great variation in temperature

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how have humans impacted deserts

irrigated agriculture has reduced biodiversity

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savanna

equatorial and subequatorial regions
some rainfall, hot weather but still exhibits seasons

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how have humans impacted savannas

cattle ranching and overhunting

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chaparral

midlatitude and coastal regions
rainy winters, dry summers; seasonal temperature range

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how have humans impacted chaparrals

agriculture, urbanization, fires

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locations of temperate grasslands

veldts of South Africa, puszta of Hungary, pampas of Argentina and Uruguay, steppes of Russia, and central North America

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conditions of temperate grasslands

dry winters, wet summers
some rainfall, occasional drought
seasonal temperature range

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how have humans impacted temperate grasslands

agriculture and overgrazing - some turned to deserts

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taiga

northern North America and Eurasia
medium precipitation, periodic drought; seasonal temperature range

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taiga is largest

terrestrial biome

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how have humans impacted taigas

logged at rate quicker than can be regrown

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temperate broadleaf forests

midlatitude
decent amount of precipitation; seasonal temperature range

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how have humans impacted temperate broadleaf forests

heavily settled by humans, used for agriculture

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tundra

20% of earth's land in the Arctic
some precipitation, cold temperatures

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alpine tundra

very high altitude, high wind, low temperature, high precipitation

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how have humans impacted tundras

used for mineral and oil extraction

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aquatic biomes characterized by

physical environment

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marine biome salt concentration

3%

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freshwater biome salt concentration

0.1%

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freshwater biomes effected by

soil and biotic components of surrounding terrestrial biomes

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photic zone

where light is sufficient enough for photosynthesis

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aphotic zone

where little light penetrates

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photic and aphotic zones make up

pelagic zone

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abyssal zone

ocean that is 2000-6000m belos surface

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benthic zone

bottom of all aquatic biomes made up of sands, sediments

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benthos

communities of organisms that inhabit the benthic zone

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detritus

dead organic matter that is food for many benthic species

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thermocline

layer of abrupt temperature change due to sunlight penetration

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turnover

oxygenated water from surface of lake moves to bottom in the spring and autumn, sending nutrient water to the surface

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littoral zone (lakes)

closer to land

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limnetic zone (lakes)

farther from land

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intertidal, neritic, and oceanic zones

distance from shore and water depth

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stratification in lakes

light decreases with depth

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temperate lakes have _____ thermocline

seasonal

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tropical lakes have _____ thermocline

all year round

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oligotrophic lakes

nutrient poor, oxygen rich

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eutrophic lakes

nutrient rich, oxygen poor in summer and winter

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oligotrophic lake may become eutrophic due to

runoff adding nutrients and sediments

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runoff from fertilized land causes nutrient enrichment which can lead too

algal blooms, oxygen depletion, fish death

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wetlands

habitat flooded some of the time

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how have humans impacted wetlands

draining and filling has destroyed 90% of wetlands

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temperature of streams vs. rivers

streams tend to be colder, rivers tend to be warmer

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how do salt and nutrient content vary in rivers

increase from headwaters to mouth

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how have humans impacted rivers

pollution, damming and flood control

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estuary

transition between river and sea, salinity varies with tides

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how have humans impacted estuaries

filling, dredging, pollution

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intertidal zones

areas periodically submerged and exposed by tides (twice daily on marine shores)

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how have humans impacted estuaries

oil pollution and construction of jetties

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ocean pelagic zone

open water constantly mixed by wind and currents
high oxygen levels, low nutrient levels

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how have humans impacted ocean pelagic zone

overfishing and pollution

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coral reefs formed from

calcium carbonate skeleton of corals
high oxygen levels, high inputs of freshwater and nutrients

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progression of coral reefs

fringing reef to barrier reef to coral atoll

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how have humans impacted coral reefs

collecting of coral skeletons, overfishing, pollution

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marine benthic zone

seafloor below surface waters
receives no sunlight, low temperature, high pressure

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deep-sea hydrothermal vents support life of

chemoautotrophic prokaryotes

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how have humans impacted marine benthic zone

overfishing and dumping

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ecological time

minute-to-minute time frame of interactions between organisms and environment

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evolutionary time

time frame of many generations

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dispersal

movement of individuals or gametes away from origin or centers of high population density

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long distance dispersal can lead to

adaptive radiation (rapid evolution)

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transplants

relocation of species to see if organism survives and reproduces

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why do ecologists observe transplants

to determine if dispersal limits distribution

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distribution may be limited by

habitat selection behavior

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predators may limit distribution of

prey (which may limit distribution of plants)

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examples of biotic limitations

pollinators, food resources, parasites, pathogens, competing organisms

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abiotic limitations

temperature, water availability, oxygen content, sunlight, salt concentration (aquatic biomes)

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abiotic limitations of plants (indirectly impacts animals)

pH, mieral composition, structure of rocks/soil