Flashcards in Chapter 52 and 53 Test Review Deck (54)
Caudal regression syndrome is commonly found in patients with what?
What term defines the appearance of over lapping skull bones that indicate fetal death?
What would fetal hydrops appear like under ultrasound?
extensive accumulation of fluid in fetal tissues
If hydrops is caused by tachycardia what would the fetal heart rate be?
a range from 200 to 240 bpm
If a patient of size has a baby, what would there be a more incidence of because the patient is of size?
neural tube defects
may be attributed to a deficiency in diet
What is caudal regression syndrome?
lack of development of the caudal spine and cord that may occur in the fetus of diabetic mother
Skeletal and central nervous system congenital anomalies in infants of diabetic mothers include...
caudal regression syndrome
neural tube defects excluding anencephaly
anencephaly with or without herniation of neural elements
When is it considered premature labor?
labor that begins before 37 wks
Monochroionic twin pregnancy during which one fetus develops without a heart or upper body, what is that condition?
Twin to twin transfusion
monozygotic twin pregnancy with single placenta and arteriovenous shunt within the placenta
monozygotic twins are at higher risk because of the shared placenta
twin to twin transfusion cannot exist between male/female twins
What is poly-oli sequence?
diamniotic pregnancy with polyhydramnios in one sac and severe oligohydramnios and smaller twin in the other sac
Poly-oli sequence is referred to what?
stuck twin syndrome
The development of conjoined twins occurs after how many day of conception?
Stuck twin syndrome is usually observed between what weeks?
16 to 26 weeks
Diamniotic/dichroionic twin pregnancy demonstrates what sonographic findings?
each fetus has their own placenta, chorion and amniotic sac
What one of the following demonstrated the division of one fertilized egg occurs 4-8 days after fertilization?
In twin to twin transfusion what is know to be true..
it exist when there is an arteriovenous shunt with the placenta.
The arterial blood of one twin is pumped into the venous system of the other twin.
The donor twin becomes anemic and growth restricted.
The twin has less blood flow through it's kidneys and urinates less, causing it to develop oligohydramnios,
The recipient twin
gets too much blood flow
may be normal or larger in size
has excess blood flow through kidneys and urinates more, causing polyhydramnios
may go into heart failure and become hydropic
What are the predictors of discordance and the growth of twins?
a difference in estimated fetal weight of more than 20%
a difference in BPD of 6 mm
a difference in AC of 20 mm
a difference in femur length of 5 mm
Most frequent cause of non-immune hydrops is what?
What are the advantages of Chorionic villi sampling (CVS)?
biopsy of the placenta to obtain a fetal karyotype
performed early in pregnancy (10-14 wks)
results are available within 1 wk
early results allow more options for parents
Cordocentesis is mostly common used for what procedure?
to obtain a blood sample
evaluates blood type
Amniocentesis may be used for what?
obtain a sample of amniotic fluid for Rh testing
monitor the isoimmunized pregnancy with delta optical denstiy 450
Why do we perform amniocentesis?
to predict Rh isoimmunization
document fetal lung maturity
Twins that arise from two separately fetilized ova are what kind?
Sonographic findings may suggest chromosomal anomalies include what?
High levels of AFP indicate what?
neural tube defects
open spina bifida
The quad screen evaluates all of the following markers...
An abnormality in the number of chromosomes is called what?
An early noninvasive means of assessing the risk of aneuploidy is what?
nuchal fold measurement