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Advanced Maternal Age

a patient who will be 35 or older at the time of delivery


First trimester testing combined with ultrasound between 11 and 14 wks is...

looking for biochemical markers associated with plasma protein A (PAPP-A) and free BhCG3. These lab values are used in conjunction with an ultrasound to measure the nuchal translucency


Second trimester screening can be performed with

the maternal serum quad screen lab value and targeted ultrasound exam


A targeted detailed evaluation of all fetal anatomy that can be seen between

18 and 20 wks


Hydrops Fetalis

a condition in which excessive fluid accumulates within the fetal body cavities


Excessive fluid accumulation may result in

anasarca, ascities, pericardial effusion, pleural effusion, placenta edema or polyhydramnios


Any substance that elicits an immunologic response, such as production of anitbody to that substance

is an anitgen


Sonograhpic findings for Hydrops

scalp edema, pleural effusion, pericardial effusion, ascities, polyhydramnios and thickened placenta


A procedure in which a needle is placed into the fetal umbilical vein and a blood sample is obtained is



Infants with thrombocytopenia are at increased risk for

intracerebral hemorrhage in utero and spontaneous bleeding


A group of conditions in which hydrops is present in the fetus but is not a result of fetomaternal blood group incompatibility is

non-immune hydrops


Cardiovascular lesions are often the most frequent causes of

NIH (non-immune hydrops)


congestive heart failure may result from

functional cardiac problems: dysrhythmias, tachycardias, myocarditis and from structural anomalies, such as hypoplastic left heart and other types of congenital heart disease


if glucose levels are high and uncontrolled

the fetus may become marcosomic


If delivery of a marcosomic infant is attempted vaginally, the physician may have difficulty delivering the shoulders of the baby after the head has delivered is termed..

shoulder dystocia


Anomalies associated with diabetes include

congenital heart and neural tube defects


The most common cardiac problems in the diabetic fetus include

transposition of the great arteries and tetralogy of fallot


What is seen almost exclusively in diabetic individuals?

caudal regression syndrome (lack of development of caudal spine and cord)