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Flashcards in Chapter 55 Deck (39):
1

Energy is ____ created or destroyed

Never

2

Mass is ____ created or destroyed

Never

3

Energy is ___ turned into mass in ecosystems

Never

4

Mass is ___ turned into energy in ecosystems

Never

5

Species are assigned to tropic levels based on

Their main source of nutrition and energy

6

Primary producers synthesize organic molecules via the process of

Photosynthesis

7

Herbivores
Plants and primary producers

Primary consumers

8

Carnivores that eat herbivores

Secondary consumers

9

Carnivores that eat carnivores

Tertiary consumers

10

Organisms that get their energy from non living organic matter are

Detritivores

11

The amount of light energy converted to chemical energy in the form of organic compounds by autotrophs durning a given time period

Primary production

12

= to gross primary production - the energy used by the primary producers for their autotrophic respiration

Net primary production (npp)

13

Why is npp typically the key measurement of production?

It represents the storage of chemical emergent that will be available to consumers in the ecosystem

14

What units are used to express npp?

Energy per unit area per unit time
Biomass added per unit area per unit time

15

Where do we find especially high npp?

Estuaries and coral reefs

16

How do we know if a nutrient is a limiting nutrient?

If you add more the growth will increase if limiting

17

Plants would grow more if they had more of this nutrient

Limiting nutrient

18

Eutrophication occurs when ___ is added to lakes, causing growth in ___ which ultimately reduces ___ concentrations

Nutrients
Algae
O2

19

As big as a lake or forest or as small as under a log

Ecosystem

20

Globally, terrestrial npp is mainly controlled by ____ and ___

Temp
Moisture

21

On land, the nutrient that most often limits plant growth is

Nitrogen

22

Often limiting in old, highly weathered soils

Phosphorus

23

The amount of chemical energy in consumers good that is converted to their own new biomass during a given period

Secondary production

24

Production efficiency represents the energy in an organisms food that is not used for

Respiration

25

The % of production transferred from one tropic level to the next

Tropic efficiency

26

Diagram of a typical pyramid of net production

See chapter notes

27

Nutrient cycles are called bio geochemical cycles because they involve both

Biotic and abiotic components

28

Name 4 elements whose biogeochemical cycles include gaseous forms

Carbon
O2
Sulfur
Nitrogen

29

Name 3 elements whose biogeochemical cycles do not include gaseous forms

Phosphorus
Potassium
Calcium

30

Water cycle

See chapter notes

31

Carbon cycle

See chapter notes

32

Nitrogen cycle

See chapter notes

33

How does phosphorus originally enter terrestrial ecosystems?

Rock weathering

34

Decomposition is the fastest in ecosystems that are ____ and ____

Warm and moist

35

Because of high decomposition rates, these ecosystems ___ levels of accumulated organic matter in the soil and ____ turnover of plant nutrients

Low
Fast

36

Most natural systems ___ recover from human disturbances but this recovery is typically ____

Can
Slow

37

3 types of organisms that are typically used in bioremediation

Plants
Fungi
Prokaryotes

38

What is the limiting nutrient in many alpine ecosystems of the western U.S.?

Nitrogen

39

Experimenting with different types of management to discover what works best is called

Adaptive management