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Flashcards in Chapter 22 Deck (23):
0

Three important observations about living organisms explained by evolution

Shares characteristics
Diversity of life
Ways organisms are suited for their environment

1

The principle which holds that the mechanisms of change (and in fact, all natural laws and processes) are constant over time (and across different locations).

Uniformitarianism

2

Proposed that organisms evolve through use and disuse and also the inheritance of acquired characteristics

Jean-Baptiste de Lamarck

3

Will acquired characteristics be inherited by offspring?

No

4

Darwin traveled where in the 1830s

South America and the Galápagos Islands

5

Process of becoming more well suited to the environment
Occurs because well suited individuals survive and reproduce

Adaptions

6

The process by which organisms with certain inherited traits tend to survive and reproduce at higher rates than other other organisms because they have those traits

Natural selection

7

Ex: breeding

Artificial selection

8

Example of artificial selection

Domestic pets

9

Derwin's observations

Variation and many offspring die

10

Darwins inferences

Individuals with certain traits leave more offspring
Over many generations these traits accumulate

11

Two directly observed examples of evolutionary change

Soapberry bugs
Antibiotic resistance

12

Two examples of vestigial structures

Snakes with leg and hip bones
Blind cave fish with eyes

13

Left over structures
Once useful to an ancestor but no longer used by the species

Vestigial structure

14

A diagram representing the descent of different organisms from various common ancestors

Evolutionary tree

15

When unrelated species develops similar traits because they're adapting to similar environments what occurs?

Convergent evolution

16

Similar ancestors

Homologous

17

Adapting to a similar environment

Analogous

18

Similarities between a sugar glider and flying squirrel are

Analogou

19

Our knowledge about the extinct ancestors of today's species comes from a careful study of the

Fossil record

20

The distribution of species among different locations, including the existence of endemic species on many islands

Biogeography

21

Those that are found in only one location

Endemic species

22

Idea that explains many observations and has been support by lots of evidence

Theory