Chapter 17 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 17 Deck (39):
1

In most cases one gene codes for one

Polypeptide hypothesis

2

Transcription is the process by which ___ is produced, using ___ as a template

RNA
DNA

3

Translation is the process by which ___ is produced, using ___ as a template

Polypeptide
mRNA

4

Translation takes place in cellular structures called

Ribosomes

5

Draw the central dogma

DNA ➡️ RNA ➡️ protein

6

No membrane bound nucleus
DNA not separated by nuclear membrane

Prokaryotes

7

Membrane bound nucleus
Separated by space and time

Eukaryotes

8

Each set of ___ nucleotides of DNA specifies one amino acid

3

9

____ stran(s) of DNA is/are read during the transcription of a gene

One

10

The mRNA nucleotide triplets

Codon

11

There are three codons that do not code for amino acids and undead signal

Stop

12

The codon AUG codes for the amino acid methionine (met) or for

Start

13

Gene expression typically includes two stages

Transcription and translation

14

Why do tobacco plants and fireflies genes use the same codons?

Bc many forms of life share the same genetic code

15

2 similarities between RNA polymerase and DNA polymerase

Add nucleotides to 3' end
Enzymes
Proteins
Found in cells

16

2 differences between RNA polymerase and DNA polymerase

Adding DNA vs RNA nucleotides
DNA polymerase needs a primer

17

The DNA sequence where RNA polymerase attaches to begin transcription is called the

Promoter

18

What happened during ignition of transcription?

RNA polymerase attaches to the promoter

19

Briefly describe what happens during the elongation phase of transcription

RNA polymerase moves along the DNA, using it as a template to build RNA strand

20

RNA polymerase falls off

Termination

21

The job of transfer RNA is to bring ____ from the cytoplasm to attach to a growing polypeptide chain

Amino acids

22

If mRNA contained the codon UGG the complementary tRNA molecule would have the anticodon

ACC

23

Charged tRNA molecule

See chapter notes

24

Aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases match tRNA molecules w the correct amino acids. This process requires energy from

ATP

25

Ribosomes are made up of proteins and

rRNAs

26

Within the ribosome, a new tRNA molecule (charged w an amino acid) arrives in the ____ site, where its anticodon pairs w the next codon of mRNA

A-arrival

27

The new amino acid is added to the growing polypeptide chain, and the tRNA moves to the ____ site, holding the polypeptide in one place

P - polypeptide

28

Once the polypeptide is attached to the next incoming amino acid, the tRNA moves to the ____ site before leaving the ribosome

E - exit

29

Name four components that must be in place for the initiation of translation to occur

sm ribosomal subunit
Lg ribosomal subunit
mRNA strand
Initiator tRNA (charged with methionine)

30

Elongation requires energy in the form of

GTP

31

Termination of translation occurs when a stop codon binds to a

Release factor

32

____ ribosomes can bind to a single strand of mRNA during translation

More than 3

33

After undergoing post-translation modifications, a polypeptide becomes a

Functional protein

34

Some polypeptides begin w a ___ that directs them to a particular location in the cell

Signal peptide

35

A change in a single nucleotide pair is called a

Point mutation

36

If one nucleotide pair in a gene is changed to a different pair, it's referred to as a ____ . If and extra pair is added that's an ___. And if a pair is deleted then it's a ____

Substitution
Insertion
Deletion

37

A missense mutation changes one amino acid to another, but a nonsense mutation changes the codon for an amino acid to ____

Stop codon

38

A mutation that changes the reading frame of a gene is called a

Frame shift mutation

39

Why is a deletion of one nucleotide pair worse than a deletion of three nucleotide pairs?

Frameshift