Chapter 26 Flashcards Preview

Bio > Chapter 26 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chapter 26 Deck (22):
0

The evolutionary history of a species or group of species is called the

Phylogeny

1

The study of how organisms are named and classified is

Taxonomy

2

The scientific name of an organism includes it's

Genus and species

3

What are the eight levels of taxonomic organization?

Domain
Kingdom
Phylum
Class
Order
Family
Genus
Species

4

All members of a single order are also members of the same

Class

5

On a phylogenetic tree, the representation of two evolutionary lineages from a common ancestor is represented by

Branch points

6

Practice with phylogenetic trees

See chapter notes

7

Three ways taxonomists distinguish between analogy and homology

Other traits in common
Fossil records
Complexity

8

In organisms which are not closely related, what would the percentage of DNA base pairs in common?

25%

9

Why do scientists use an outgroup when constructing a phylogenetic tree using cladistics?

To distinguish shared ancestral characteristics from shared derived characteristics

10

The branch length in a phylogenetic tree can represent either

Evolution and time

11

Why don't scientists use the five kingdom system anymore?

Some prokaryotes differ as much from each other as they do eukaryotes
Moved onto 3 domain system

12

The three domains

Bacteria
Archaea
Eukaryotes

13

Tree of life diagram

See chapter notes

14

Why isn't a diagram a perfect representation of evolutionary relationships among three domains?

Because of gene transfer which can't be depicted by the tree

15

Unicellular
Eukaryotic
Nutritionally diverse

Protists

16

Absorb food
Multicellular
Cell wall with chitin

Fungi

17

Multicellular
Chloroplasts
Cell wall with cellulose

All plants

18

Double fertilization
Alternation of generations (diploid and haploid)
Cones or flowers

Seed plants

19

Muscle and nerve cells
No cell wall
Three layer body plan

All animals

20

No vertebrae
Multicellular
Radial or bilateral symmetry

Invertebrates

21

Back bones made up of vertebrae
Complex behavior
Complex structure

Vertebrates