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Flashcards in Chapter 6 Deck (26):
1

social group

people who share goals, norms, and have a common identity
-has a purpose and is therefore important to its members
-members know how to tell an "insider" from an "outsider"

2

social aggregate

people who have little in common but are in the same place together

3

primary groups

involve interaction among members who have an emotional investment in one another and in a situation, who know one another intimately, and who interact as total individuals rather than through specialized roles
-generally small, relatively long period of interaction, intimate association, emotional depth to relationships, cooperative, friendly (example: family)

4

secondary group

charactered by much less intimacy among its members
-usually has specific goals
-formally organized and is impersonal
-usually large, often temporary, little social intimacy, relationships generally superficial, more formal and impersonal (example: co-workers)

5

instrumental

focused on accomplishing concrete tasks

6

expressive

concerning feelings and interpersonal relationships

7

reference group

a group of social category that an individual uses to help define beliefs, attitudes, and values and to guide behavior
-provides a comparison point against which people measure themselves and others
-often a category we identify with, rather than a specific group we belong to

8

dyad

a group of two people
-example: engaged couple or pilot and co-pilot

9

triad

a group of three people
-considered more stable than dyads, but the addition of a third member creates uncertainty because it introduces the possibility of two-against-one alliances
-more stable in those situations when one member can help resolve quarrels between the other two

10

subgroup

a splinter group, usually created informally, to enable face-to-face interaction

11

associations

purposefully created groups with clearly defined goals and procedures

12

Gemeinschaft

community; a group in which relations are intimate, personal, and cooperative

13

Gesellschaft

society; a group in which relations are impersonal and independent

14

collective conscience

Durkheim's term for the shared fundamental beliefs and values of a group

15

mechanical solidarity

social solidarity based on similarity among people and strong commitment to the collective conscience

16

organic solidarity

social solidarity based on difference and the fitting together of specialized tasks

17

bureaucracy

a formal, rationally organized social structure divided into offices with specific tasks run on principles of impartiality

18

ideal type

a simplified model used to illustrate a concept

19

oligarchy

rule by a small group of self-interested people

20

social institutions

the ordered social relationships that grow out of the values, norms, statuses, and roles that organize the activities that fulfill society's fundamental needs

21

social organization

the relatively stable pattern of social relationships among individuals and groups in society

22

functions of groups

to function properly, all groups (primary & secondary) must:
-define boundaries
-choose leaders
-make decisions
-set goals
-assign tasks
-control members' behavior

23

leader

someone who occupies a central role or position of dominance and influence in a group
-essential in a group

24

instrumental leadership

a leader who actively proposes tasks and plans to guide the group towards achieving its goals

25

expressive leadership

a leader who works to keep relations among group members harmonious and morale high

26

groupthink

helps maintain solidarity, but it can also disrupt the decision making process
-groups begin to feel morally superior and members who would otherwise wish to dissent may cave to peer pressure