Chapter 6; Bio 210 (Bones) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 6; Bio 210 (Bones) Deck (71):
1

Axial Skeleton

Skull- cranial and facial
Vertebral Column
Thoracic Cage- sternum, rib cage
Hyoid Bone-

2

Appendicular

upper and lower appendeges and skeletal girdles attaching them to the skeletal system

3

Upper Girdle or Shoulder Girdle (Pectoral)

Clavicle and Scapula

4

Lower Girdle or Pelvic Girdle (Coaxal)

Ilium and Ischium and Pubic bones

5

Three tissue types that form the skeletal system

Bones, cartilage and ligaments

6

Three major types of skeletal cartilages

-hyaline, fibro, elastic

7

Flat Bone

sternum, cranial bones and scapula and ribs

8

Long Bone

longer than they are cylindrically wide and has epifecies

9

Irregular

any vertebrae bones, the entire coaxal bone

10

Sutural or Wormian

in the cranial bone that combine two bones

11

Sesamoid Bone

ex: patella

12

Proximal and Distal Epihesis

ends of the bones

13

Proximal and Distal Metaphysis

ends before the ends of the bone

14

Diaphysis

area between proximal and distal epiphesis

15

Periosteum

outside lining of bone

16

Endosteum

inside of the bone (marrow cavity) yellow bone marrow

17

Spongy Bone

soft inside of the bone

18

Compact Bone

outside of the marrow

19

Red Bone Marrow

found in spongy bone (hematopoesis)

20

Yellow Bone Marrow

stores energy

21

Epiphesial Plate

a juvenile bone that is still growing from hyaline cartilage until the cartilage ossifies at a later age

22

Epiphesial Line

once the bone is mature and the cartilage ossifies

23

Osteon

Rings around the central canal of osseous tissue (strength in the circular shape for compression)

24

Central Canal

Holes that contain vessels and nerves

25

Lamellae

distance between one concentric rings to another

26

Osteocyte

bone cell

27

Lacunae

composed of osetocytes

28

Canaliculus

tunnel through the extracellular matrix that connects lamellae and osteocytes

29

Sutures to know

Frontal, Saggital, Lambdoid, Squamous

30

Olfactory Foramen

holes in the Ethmoid bone which enhances smell to the brain

31

Ethmoid Bone

composed of the 'Crista Galli' (holds connective tissues to hold brain in place) and the 'Cribriform Plate'
*Cribriform- any plate with holes in it (noodles)

32

Sella Turcica

holds the pituitary gland in the cranial cavity

33

Sphenoid Bone

-lesser and greater wing
-optic canal (optic nerve goes through the sphenoid bone to the optic canal)

34

2 categories of ribs

true ribs and false ribs- floating ribs

35

True Ribs

superior 7 pair of ribs

36

False Ribs

Inferior 5 pair (Indirected hyaline cartilage)

37

Floating RIbs

11 and 12 ribs

38

Vertebral Column

Cervical 1- 7 (C7 spinous process)
Thoracic 1-12
Lumbar 1-5
Sacral 5 fused
Coccyx 4 fused

39

Lumbar vertebrae

largest body of all

40

2/3 of bone made of and 1/3 made of

Calcium Phosphate (2/3) Collagen (1/3)

41

Osteocyte

mature bone cells that maintain bone matrix

42

Osteoblast

produces new bone matrix

43

Osteoclasts

breaks done osteo cells
-releases hydrogen H ion and since there is always an abundant amount of Cl in interstitial fluid they bind together to form an acid which break downs bone.
-releases enzymes that go out and breaks down the protens
(enzymes break down proteins and acid breaks down ground substances)

44

Osteoprogenitor cells

bone stem cells that become osteocytes

45

Preiosteum

2 layers of
-tough outer fibrous layer
-inner cellular layer

46

3 functions of Periosteum

isolates bone from surrounding tissues
provides route for circulatory system
bone growth and repair

47

Endosteum

lines the inside surfaces of bone

48

Endosteum contains

osteoblasts and osteoprogenitor cells (active in bone growth and repair)

49

Fibrous Connective Tissue Membrane

once formed are called 'membrane bones' (intramembrous)

50

Hyaline Cartilage

endochondral bone (most all bones)

51

Intramembranous ossification

flat bones of cranium, mandible, and clavicles (parietal, occipital)

52

Endochondral ossification

most all bones (begin as hyaline cartilage)
-begin after 8 weeks of development

53

Postnatal Growth of Long Bones

Interstitial and Appositional

54

Interstitial Growth

growth of a long bone in length
-occurs in epiphesial plates (ends and is called an epiphesial line)

55

Appositional Growth

growth in diameter of long bone
-osteoblasts make bone larger
-osteoclasts breaks down the bone

56

Collagen

protein fibers in bone

57

Bone Remodeling

osteoblast activity - bones are getting stronger
osteoclast activity - bones are getting weaker

58

Hypocalcemia

blood calcium falls

59

Hypercalcemia

blood calcium rises

60

Parathyroid glands

releases PTH which increases calcium ion levels in body fluids
-located posterior to thyroid gland

61

PTH

Parathyroid Hormone

62

Steps of PTH (Calcium Homeostasis)

1-stimulates osteoclasts
2-increases intestinal absorption of calcium ions
3-decreases the rate of calcium excretion at the kidneys

63

Calcitonin

secreted from the Thyroid Gland which DECREASES calcium ion levels in body fluids

64

Steps of Calcitonin

1- inhibits osteoclasts activity
2-increases calcium ion excretion at kidneys

65

Calcium

muscle contraction
nerve impulses
bone matrix
blood clotting

66

Phosphorus

ATP
phospholipids
bone matrix

67

4 steps of Repairing Fractuces

- bleeding produces clot (fracture hematoma) bone cells in area die, inflammation occurs
- external and internal calluses form to stabilize break, clot dissolves and macrophages clean up area
- both calluses are ossified over 4-6 weeks, first bone formed is spongy bone
- osteoblasts and osteocytes continue to remodel the fractuce up to a year replacing spongy with compact bone

68

Pott's fractuce

distal ankle

69

Colle's fracture

distal radius

70

Greenstick Fracture

breaks but one end stays in place

71

Osteoporosis

condition of severe bone loss extensive to impair normal function